Attila Whitepaper

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ATT White Paper ATT Foundation September 25, 2019

https://www.attnetwork.org Contents 0 Summary........................................................................................................................ - 1 - 1 Background....................................................................................................................- 2 - 1.1 Basic communication software and typical products.................................- 2 - 1.2 The rise of social networks.................................................................................- 2 - 1.3 Basic communication protocol......................................................................... - 6 - 1.4 Disadvantages of basic communication protocols..................................... - 8 - 1.5 Problems with social networks......................................................................... - 9 - 1.6 The origin and development of blockchain technology........................... - 9 - 1.7 Anonymity and decentralization...................................................................... - 9 - 1.8 Industry pain points........................................................................................... - 11 - 1.9 Use blockchain technology to implement cross-product communication protocols......................................................................................................................- 12 - 2 Design Principles.......................................................................................................- 18 - 2.1 System overview................................................................................................. - 18 - 2.2 Product architecture.......................................................................................... - 18 - 2.3 Deployment framework....................................................................................- 20 - 2.4 System goals........................................................................................................ - 20 - 2.4.1 Availability..................................................................................................... - 20 - 2.4.2 Throughput................................................................................................... - 20 - 2.4.3 Fault tolerance............................................................................................. - 21 - 2.4.4 Scalability.......................................................................................................- 21 - 2.4.5 Low cohesion................................................................................................- 21 - 2.4.6 Coupling........................................................................................................ - 21 - 2.4.7 Self-healing................................................................................................... - 21 - 3 Basic Agreement (ATT)............................................................................................. - 21 - 3.1 Previous achievements......................................................................................- 21 - 3.1.1 HTTP/HTTPS protocol................................................................................ - 22 - I

https://www.attnetwork.org 3.1.2 RDP protocol................................................................................................ - 24 - 3.1.3 PcoIP protocol..............................................................................................- 24 - 3.1.4 HDX / ICA protocol..................................................................................... - 25 - 3.1.5 SPICE protocol..............................................................................................- 25 - 3.1.6 RFB protocol................................................................................................. - 29 - 3.1.7 X protocol......................................................................................................- 30 - 3.2 ATT protocol........................................................................................................ - 30 - 3.2.1 What is ATT................................................................................................... - 30 - 3.2.2 ATT Protocol head..................................................................................... - 31 - 3.2.3 ATT Message format................................................................................. - 31 - 3.2.4 ATT protocol data compression..............................................................- 31 - 3.2.5 ATT protocol scalability............................................................................. - 32 - 4 Public chain construction........................................................................................ - 33 - 4.1 Node Logic........................................................................................................... - 33 - 4.1.1 Agency contributions................................................................................. - 33 - 4.1.2 Node selection............................................................................................. - 34 - 4.1.3 Node responsibility.....................................................................................- 35 - 4.1.4 Node Disaster Recovery............................................................................ - 35 - 4.2 Consensus Foundation......................................................................................- 36 - 4.2.1 Consensus by contribution.......................................................................- 36 - 4.2.2 Consensus reward....................................................................................... - 37 - 4.2.3 Consensus Algorithm................................................................................. - 37 - 4.2.4 Complete Consensus Logic...................................................................... - 37 - 4.3 Mining rewards................................................................................................... - 39 - 4.3.1 Definition of mining in this system........................................................ - 39 - 4.3.2 The value of mining to the entire network.......................................... - 40 - 4.3.3 Resources Consumed by Mining............................................................ - 40 - 4.3.4 Rewards for miners..................................................................................... - 41 - II

https://www.attnetwork.org 4.4 Penalty mechanism............................................................................................ - 42 - 4.4.1 Definition of evil in this system............................................................... - 42 - 4.4.2 Risk control................................................................................................... - 42 - 4.4.3 Malicious information................................................................................ - 43 - 4.4.4 Compliance Extension (PoR).................................................................... - 43 - 4.4.5 Evil punishment........................................................................................... - 45 - 5 Cross-Product Transport Protocol (TPTP)........................................................... - 46 - 5.1 Previous achievements......................................................................................- 46 - 5.1.1 Text Transfer Protocol................................................................................- 46 - 5.1.2 Picture transfer.............................................................................................- 47 - 5.1.3 File transfer................................................................................................... - 47 - 5.1.4 Voice Message............................................................................................. - 48 - 5.1.5 Audio and Video Calls................................................................................- 49 - 5.2 Improved transport protocol.......................................................................... - 50 - 5.2.1 Short connection message....................................................................... - 50 - 5.2.2 Long Connection Message....................................................................... - 50 - 5.2.3 Audio and video messages...................................................................... - 51 - 5.3 Cross-platform Transport Protocol (TPTP).................................................. - 51 - 5.3.1 What is TPTP.................................................................................................- 51 - 5.3.2 TPTP protocol header................................................................................ - 52 - 5.3.3 TPTP Message Format............................................................................... - 52 - 5.3.4 TPTP data compression............................................................................. - 54 - 5.3.5 TPTP scalability.............................................................................................- 55 - 6 Economic model.........................................................................................................- 56 - 6.1 PoC..........................................................................................................................- 56 - 6.1.1 What is contribution...................................................................................- 56 - 6.1.2 Contribution sources..................................................................................- 56 - 6.1.3 Contribution distribution.......................................................................... - 57 - III

https://www.attnetwork.org 6.1.4 How the contribution distribution method promotes the entire network forward cycle..........................................................................................- 57 - 6.1.5 Optimal Energy Efficiency Theory of the Whole Network...............- 57 - 6.2 PoR..........................................................................................................................- 58 - 6.2.1 What are rules.............................................................................................. - 58 - 6.2.2 Rule use..........................................................................................................- 59 - 6.2.3 Rule recovery................................................................................................ - 60 - 6.2.4 How the Rule Recovery Method Promotes the Forward Cycle of the Whole Network...................................................................................................... - 60 - 6.2.5 Network-wide minimum limit theory.................................................... - 61 - IV

https://www.attnetwork.org 0 Summary The full name of ATT is AGREEMENT OF TELECOM TECHNOSPHERE, which is a decentralized information communication protocol based on blockchain technology. It is committed to providing an autonomous cross-platform communication solution for global social networks. Different SNS (Social Network Services) can establish an information network through this protocol, allowing users to conduct cross- platform social behavior. For all social network platforms using the ATT protocol, the information circulation will support end-to-end encryption, which can create a better timely communication experience for users, and the process of message transmission will be simpler, faster, reliable and private. As a decentralized instant messaging protocol, ATT combines the four major technologies of blockchain, DNS, smart contracts and instant messaging protocols. By uniformly identifying cross-chain account addresses, cross-platform communication becomes possible. Each user on the chain includes one or more server / service providers and applications. Each user on the chain can communicate with other users and modify the service provider at any time. With the open source and open ATT protocol, developers can focus on how to develop attractive applications without having to maintain the server. Ecology and users of ATT: BiYong, a one-stop blockchain social platform serving the world, will become one of the first SNSs to support the ATT protocol. BiYong has tens of millions of blockchain users and hundreds of thousands of blockchain project groups around the world. It is a social network platform that has received much attention and recognition in the blockchain industry. ATT will enable unprecedented cross-platform interaction and communication for our users. -1-

https://www.attnetwork.org 1 Background 1.1 Basic communication software and typical products In today's extremely developed network, both the PC-side software and the mobile-side app have almost networking capabilities. Mobile terminals such as WeChat, Alipay, Meituan, JD.com and various mobile games, PC terminals such as various relational databases (MySQL, MSSQL, Oracle), caches (Redis, Memcached), websites and Web browsers, QQ and various Online games are based on network communication. Even remote desktops, network neighbors, shared folders under Windows, and Linux login using SSH are essentially carried out through Sockets, but they have only designed their own communication protocols. Another example is the web browser (such as IE, 360, Sogou, etc.) that we usually use to access the Internet. It just uses Socket to perform a "request / response" operation with the Web server through the HTTP protocol. The browser sends the request to the server. A request for a URL, and then the server sends back a response in the form of HTML. The browser then parses and renders the HTML, which is in the end some socket operations. What exactly is Socket? To put it plainly, it is just an interface provided by the operating system for developers to perform network operations. Through Socket, we can interact with the TCP/IP protocol stack in the operating system kernel to realize the transmission and reception of network information. 1.2 The rise of social networks In 1971, the first email was born. The reason is to facilitate the scientists of the ARPANET project to share research results with each other. In 1991, after many years of practice and improvement, Berners Lee established the World Wide Web (WWW), which is characterized by "hyperlinks". -2-

https://www.attnetwork.org In 1994, Justin Hall, a student at Swarthmore College, established his own site, "Justin ’ s Links from the Underground" to connect with external networks. Justin Hall has updated this site for 11 years, and is therefore known as the "founding father". Classmates.com was established in 1995 to help former kindergarten classmates, elementary school classmates, junior high school classmates, high school classmates, and college classmates get back in touch. Classmates. com had 50 million members in 2008, only to fall out of the top 10 social networking site in 2010. Here is a lively example of Romantic: Ray Sears found his seventh-grade girlfriend on Classmates.com. He asked her through the station's information tool if she remembered him, and she answered "how can I forget my first love". So they entered the palace of marriage and gave birth to two sons. In 1996, the early search engine Ask.com went online, which allowed people to ask questions in natural language rather than keywords (for example: "what movie is released today" instead of "movie release on October 23"). In 1997, AIM, a real-time communication tool, was launched; this year, a pioneer blogger named Jorn Barger coined the term "weblog". In 1998, the online diary community Open Diary was launched, allowing people to post public or private diaries, even if they don’t know HTML. More importantly, for the first time, it enables people to respond to comments in other people's logs. In 1999, the blogging tools Blogger and LiveJournal appeared. Later, blogger was acquired by Google in 2003, but the product still exists - FOSS patent, which is popular among global technology companies, is a website built by blogger. In 2000, Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger co-founded Wikipedia, the world's first open source, online, collaborative encyclopedia, which is completely different from the way the British Encyclopedia was compiled. Wiki users contributed 20,000 online entries in their first year. At present, Wikipedia still insists on fundraising to raise operating funds. -3-

https://www.attnetwork.org At the end of 2011, they raised 20 million US dollars to maintain 2012 operations. In 2001, Meetup.com was established to focus on offline dating. This website should be relatively unfamiliar to everyone, but if you tell this 12-year-old website that there are still 340,000 groups holding offline events every month, you should be surprised. The site was created by Scott Heiferman. After the September 11 incident in 2001, he founded Meetup.com to help people connect with each other-and not just online. Meetup.com is an interest dating site, he encourages people to go out of their isolated homes to make friends and chat with like- minded people. It now has 340,000 groups in monthly meetings in local communities, eating, drinking, chatting, socializing and even studying. In 2002, Friendster went online, the first social network with 1 million users. Friendster set a precedent for making friends through a personal homepage. Two years later, Facebook officially launched in the bedroom of Harvard University. Currently under Facebook's offensive, Friendster is basically declining globally, but it is still popular in Indonesia and the Philippines-interestingly, Facebook is also extremely popular in these two countries. It seems that Southeast Asian people have a strong social desire. In 2003, MySpace was launched for youth and youth groups, and it once again refreshed the growth rate of social networks: one million registrations in a month. The development of MySpace has gradually increased, and the useless verbal abuse has gradually increased. Managers have not regulated it, making it difficult to expand users and eventually being sold. If the 580 million sold to News Corp in 2005 symbolizes that it is the new star of the future, the sale of $ 35 million to advertisers in 2011 means that the meteor has fallen. WordPress was also launched in 2003, which was created by hundreds of netizens around the world through online collaboration, and currently has tens of millions of users worldwide-as of December 2011, WordPress 3.0, which was released for a year, received 65 million times. download. There are countless stories related to WordPress, and the infographic tells the story of helping an autistic girl get out of her illness. -4-

https://www.attnetwork.org This is called Carly Fleishmann, who got rid of autism by typing on a computer; she founded Carly's Voice's WordPress personal blog helps others get rid of autism. In 2004, Facebook was established. According to Facebook's first financial report after listing in July, Facebook currently has 955 million monthly user active users (MAU) and 543 million monthly mobile platform active users. Flickr was founded in the same year of 2004, and it is still a very active picture community, but the owner has become Yahoo. In 2005, YouTube was founded, and it was quickly adopted by Google after its establishment. The acquisition price from Google in 2006 was $ 1.65 billion. In 2006, Twitter was founded. Because its content is limited to 140 words, it quickly became a convenient communication tool and a powerful self-media platform. Spotify was also founded in 2006, which is now typical of social music sharing apps, with 15 million MAU and 4 million paying users. In 2007, the light blogging platform Tumblr was established and currently has 77 million blogs on the platform; according to data from July 2011, the website has 13.4 million unique monthly visitors. As an example in the infographic, a female carpenter named Ana White started a blog on Tumblr to share her love for the carpenter's work. Now her blog is visited 3 million times a month, and her advertising income is enough to support her family. In 2008, Groupon went online, the largest group buying website in the world, but its share price has fallen by more than 80% in the past year and has been declining. In 2009, Foursquare went online to form a check-in-based social network based on location. Foursquare was founded in New York City and has a unique "4SQ Day" in New York on April 16 every year. As of April this year, Foursquare has 20 million registered users. -5-

https://www.attnetwork.org In 2010, Google launched Google Buzz, a microblogging and communication tool around the most successful product, Gmail, but it was a failed product and was completely terminated by Google on December 15, 2011. In 2011, Google+ ’ s successor, Google+ went live. According to data from September this year, Google+ currently has 400 million registered users and 100 million active users per month. Pinterest experienced explosive growth in 2012 , in large part because it was named the "Best Startup of the Year" by TechCrunch at the end of 2011, and it is currently the fastest website in the history of websites to reach 10 million unique visitors. 1.3 Basic communication protocol The implementation of any network application is inseparable from Socket programming. Of course, we can use higher levels of abstraction and packaging, such as TcpListener, TcpClient, UdpClient, and more abstract WCF, WebService, Remoting and other technologies. However, in order to understand the underlying principles of network communication in a deeper way, it is ultimately impossible to bypass sockets. As long as you have a little understanding of Socket programming, you will know operations such as Bind, Listen, Accept, Connect, Send, Receive, etc. Indeed, all network applications are a reasonable use of these basic operations. For TCP, because it is a connection-oriented protocol, generally one party needs to act as the server to listen, and the other party acts as a client to initiate an active connection to the server. The general usage of TCP programming using sockets is as follows. Server-side code: Socket tcpListenSock = new Socket(AddressFamily.InterNetwork, SocketType.Stream, ProtocolType.Tcp); var tcpLocalEnd = new IPEndPoint(IPAddress.Any, listenPort); tcpListenSock.Bind(tcpLocalEnd);tcpListenSock.Listen(10); while(true) -6-

https://www.attnetwork.org { var workerSock = tcpListenSock.Accept(); byte[] buf = new byte[1000];workerSock.Receive(buf); } Client code: Socket serverSock = new Socket(AddressFamily.InterNetwork, SocketType.Stream, ProtocolType.Tcp); serverSock.Connect(serverEndPoint); byte[] buf = new byte[1000];serverSock.Send(buf); The general flow of the above code is: the server listens to the connection, when there is a client connection, the server receives the connection and starts to receive the data sent by the client and processes it; the client initiates a connection request to the server, and after the connection is successful, Send data to the server. Many online tutorials on Socket programming mostly introduce the above operations as soon as they come up, leading many beginners to think that Socket programming should be like this. Even many beginners will think that the server can only receive data and the client can only send data. To receive data sent by the server, the client must first listen to the connection from the server on a certain port of the client. They only know that TCP is a full-duplex protocol, but they just stay on knowing this concept and have nothing to do with practical applications. The above code just illustrates the most basic Socket programming method, which is "interactive synchronous blocking I / O" in term. In this way, the server listens to the local port. When there is no connection request, the user process will block in the Accept function until a client requests a connection. In addition, when a client connection comes in, the server user process will Busy with receiving client data, if a new client connects at this time, the server cannot respond. This method is called "interactive" because it is similar to "a client asks a question and a server answers a sentence". Connection-oriented TCP -7-

https://www.attnetwork.org As the server needs to save various states of client logins, sessions, and activities, the communication between the client and server uses the connection-oriented TCP protocol. In addition, unlike traditional HTTP servers and browsers that use short connections (now the HTTP protocol uses long connections by default), we use long connections here, that is, once the client and server establish a TCP connection, The connection is automatically disconnected, but the connection is used to transmit data until the client actively disconnects. 1.4 Disadvantages of basic communication protocols WebSocket uses a source-based security model. When initiating a WebSocket handshake request, the browser will add an HTTP header named Origin to the request. The Oringin field indicates the origin of the request to prevent unauthorized cross-site access requests. . The client of WebSocket is not limited to the browser, so the WebSocket specification does not mandate that the Origin header in the handshake phase is required, and WebSocket is not restricted by the browser same origin policy. If the server does not authenticate against the Origin header, it may lead to a cross-site WebSocket hijacking attack. The vulnerability was discovered and made public by Christian Schneider as early as 2013, and Christian named it Cross Site WebSocket Hijacking (CSWSH). Cross-site WebSocket hijacking is very harmful, but it is easy to be ignored by developers. Related cases can refer to: IPython Notebook (CVE-2014-3429), OpenStack Compute (CVE-2015-0259), Zeppelin WebSocket server and other cross-site WebSocket hijacking. Man-in-the-middle attack WebSocket uses HTTP or HTTPS protocol for handshake request. In the case of HTTP protocol, if there is a middleman who can sniff HTTP traffic, then the middleman can obtain and tamper with the WebSocket handshake request, and establish a WebSocket connection with the server by faking client information, as shown in the figure below As shown. To prevent such attacks, you need to establish a WebSocket -8-

https://www.attnetwork.org connection on an encrypted channel and use the HTTPS protocol to initiate a handshake request. 1.5 Problems with social networks  Vulnerability in itself.  Mobile phones and computer clients have security threats.  Enterprise system security risks.  Information leakage.  Brand crisis. 1.6 The origin and development of blockchain technology The blockchain originated from Bitcoin.On November 1, 2008, a person who claimed to be Satoshi Nakamoto published a paper entitled “ Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System ” . The architecture concept of electronic cash systems such as stamp technology and blockchain technology marks the birth of Bitcoin. Two months later, the theory entered into practice. On January 3, 2009, the first genesis block with a serial number of 0 was born. A few days later, on January 9, 2009, the block with the serial number 1 appeared, and connected with the genesis block with the serial number 0 to form a chain, which marked the birth of the blockchain. 1.7 Anonymity and decentralization Decentralization is a very distinctive feature of the blockchain. Using the decentralization of the blockchain, we can open up some new business applications, such as the application of returning user data income to the user itself today. What is it? What do you mean? Luojia Mountain God still wants to use some examples to illustrate. First of all, let's talk about user data. User data refers to some data that can reflect the user's personal preferences and consumption propensity. This is like when we want to sell a product to a person, then we need to -9-

https://www.attnetwork.org act on his needs and psychology. An effective analysis is that if more user data can be obtained, the merchant can sell goods more effectively. However, in the current Internet industry, these user data are generally participated by third-party platforms. This platform integrates user data Sell to merchants to gain benefits, but the users themselves do not receive any benefits. This is like someone else holding your information to gain benefits, and you may somehow receive some push ads. So how to change the above situation? Generally, the traditional Internet has a third-party platform to participate in obtaining user information. This is a kind of centralization. We need to eliminate this situation. At this time, we can think about this problem in conjunction with the decentralization of the blockchain. Decentralization refers to the fact that users do not need a third-party platform to obtain user data. Instead, users themselves provide data actively, so that we can enable users to obtain the benefits of their own data. How does it work? The first is that the user actively provides data, and then the intermediate data platform purchases the data. The intermediate data platform can encourage users to provide data through some benefits and benefits. Finally, the merchant purchases data from the data platform. The data platform can conduct transactions through smart contracts. Smart contracts The purpose is to ensure that the transaction is carried out reliably. The final revenue is distributed by the user and the intermediate data platform. This allows the user's data to be returned to the user. This is similar to the usual questionnaires that are paid for. After filling in, we will get a red envelope or some small gifts, which is equivalent to returning the data income to the user itself. Therefore, we can imagine that if the decentralized characteristics of the blockchain can be used to eliminate the involvement of third-party platforms, users can obtain their own data benefits, which will further promote the development of the big data market. - 10 -

https://www.attnetwork.org 1.8 Industry pain points Today, social networks are like glue, and anyone can get in touch with anyone else in the world through many social tools. However, with the rise of various social tools, the following issues will gradually become vital to bother users the elements of: Who owns user data. With more than 50 million user information on Facebook being captured and used by the political data company Cambridge Analytica, accurate advertising content is delivered to users, helping the Donald Trump team run for the United States in 2016 president. After the incident came to light, it attracted widespread attention from the international community. Facebook and its founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg fell into an unprecedented crisis and began to apologize to users! At present, global technology giants, as well as traditional companies, are doing everything they can to get more user data. Internet giants at home and abroad, such as Google, Facebook, Amazon, Tencent, Baidu, Ali, and Huawei, have huge amounts of user data, and these data will be collected as much as possible and used for user login experience. Take Amazon as an example. Its big data analysis system is second to none in the field of e-commerce. All the behaviors of users on its e- commerce website and APP will be collected as much as possible and used for the next login experience of users. When logging in again, users will find a personalized shopping experience on their homepage, "wish list", "recommended for you", "browsing history", "relevant products you have browsed", "users who bought this product" I also bought "and wait to show them one by one. Right now, the networking and transparency of personal data has become an irresistible megatrend. For the word privacy, the generally accepted definition in scientific research is "some attributes of a single user", as long as it meets this definition, it can be regarded as It's privacy. For a single user of online shopping, "purchase preference" and "residential address" are privacy. - 11 -

https://www.attnetwork.org At present, human beings have enjoyed the convenience brought by artificial intelligence technologies such as recommendation algorithms, speech recognition, image recognition, and driverless cars at multiple levels. At the same time, in the process of scientific research and product development, algorithms need to be collected Using user data, user data privacy is more or less exposed during this process. Voices defending privacy have stated that while some people enjoy the convenience and efficiency brought by big data AI, they also scold the platform for reading their online privacy. Everything is your choice after weighing the pros and cons. If you want to protect your absolute privacy, don't use the Internet. The independence of each social product. As major social products divide up global users, users are compelled to register their accounts on each social product separately, and there is no possibility for each social product to communicate with each other. 1.9 Use blockchain technology to implement cross- product communication protocols Blockchain technology is a distributed ledger technology.It has the characteristics of decentralization and information cannot be tampered with, and is increasingly favored by all walks of life. In the blockchain system, all information is sent to the broadcast participating nodes of the blockchain, but the data of some business scenarios do not need to be recorded on the blockchain for broadcasting, these scenarios are only suitable for point-to-point communication. In the current blockchain system, as all parties remain anonymous and cannot directly establish a point-to-point data connection, how can a point-to-point data transmission connection be established in the anonymous system of the blockchain, while maintaining the point-to- point parties Anonymity has become an urgent technical issue. Technical realization elements: In order to make up for the shortcomings of the existing technology, a point-to-point communication protocol for the blockchain network is - 12 -

https://www.attnetwork.org provided. , Solves the problem that because the parties remain anonymous, can not directly establish a point-to-point data connection. In order to solve the above technical problems, the following technical solution is provided: a blockchain network point-to-point communication protocol, including node A, smart contract, and node B. When one of the nodes A needs to establish a connection with another node B, The contract will broadcast the request to each node of the blockchain. The contract records the blockchain account address, time, and description of the reason for establishing the connection that the node needs to communicate with. When the node B receives the new block, it finds that A record of a smart contract, knowing that another node A wants to establish a private connection with this node, the node B may choose not to establish such a connection, that is, no subsequent operations are required, and if the node B chooses to establish a connection with it The information agreed to communicate with the node A is broadcasted through a smart contract. The node A uses the public key PubKeyB of the node B to encrypt the information such as the IP address port of the node A, and broadcasts to the entire network through the smart contract. The node B receives the encrypted information and decrypts the encrypted information through the private key PrivKeyB to obtain the IP and port of node A And send a signature by the private key PrivKeyB Hello message. Further, the node A receives the signature message sent by the node B, and verifies the signature by using the public key PubKeyB of the node B. By adopting the above technical scheme, the signature message of the Node B can be effectively verified. Further, if the node A passes the verification, the node A obtains the IP address and port of the node B, and sends a Hello message signed by the private key PrivKeyA. By adopting the above technical scheme, the node B can be made to verify the preparation of the node A. - 13 -

https://www.attnetwork.org Further, the node B receives the signature message sent by the node A, and verifies the signature by using the public key PubKeyA of the node A. By adopting the above technical scheme, the signature message of the node A can be effectively verified. Further, if the node B passes the verification, a SUCCESS message is returned. The connection between the node A and the node B has been established at this time, and a point-to-point message can be directly sent through the connection. By adopting the above technical scheme, it is possible to prompt that the node A and the node B can establish a connection, and the node A and the node B can effectively perform a point-to-point occurrence message. Compared with the prior art, the blockchain network point-to-point communication protocol has the following beneficial effects: 1) Through the point-to-point communication protocol of the blockchain network, a point-to-point data transmission connection can be established in the anonymous system of the blockchain, and the anonymity of the point-to-point parties is still maintained. The two parties establishing the connection can transmit private data through the connection, The establishment of a connection requires the consent of both parties. There is no risk of abuse. Other nodes on the network only know that such a connection exists, but cannot obtain private messages transmitted in the connection. 2) Through the point-to-point communication protocol of the blockchain network, while maintaining anonymity, all parties can directly establish a point-to-point data connection, and can establish a point-to-point data transmission connection in the anonymous system of the blockchain, and still maintain Anonymity of peer-to-peer parties. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The figure below is a flowchart of a blockchain point-to-point communication protocol. - 14 -

https://www.attnetwork.org Detailed ways The technical solutions in the embodiments will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the accompanying drawings in the embodiments. Obviously, the described embodiments - 15 -

https://www.attnetwork.org are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, but not all the embodiments. Provide a technical solution: a point-to-point communication protocol for a blockchain network, including node A, smart contract, and node B. When a node A needs to establish a connection with another node B, the request is broadcast to the block through a smart contract On each node of the chain, the contract records the blockchain account address, time, and description of the connection establishment reason that the node needs to communicate with each other. When Node B receives the new block, it finds a record of such a smart contract. Another node A wants to establish a private connection with this node. Node B can choose not to establish such a connection, that is, no subsequent operations are required. If node B chooses to establish a connection with it, the information that is agreed to communicate with node A will be passed through a smart contract. Node A uses the public key PubKeyB of Node B to encrypt the information such as the IP address and port of Node A, and broadcasts it to the entire network through smart contracts. Node B receives the encrypted information and decrypts the encrypted information through the private key PrivKeyB. Obtain the IP and port of node A and send a Hello message signed with the private key PrivKeyB. Further, the node A receives the signature message sent by the node B, and verifies the signature through the public key PubKeyB of the node B, which can effectively verify the signature message of the node B. Further, if node A passes the verification, node A obtains the IP address and port of node B, and sends a Hello message signed by the private key PrivKeyA, so that node B can prepare to verify node A. Further, the node B receives the signature message sent by the node A, and verifies the signature through the public key PubKeyA of the node A, which can effectively verify the signature message of the node A. Further, if node B passes the verification, a SUCCESS message is returned, which can prompt node A and node B to establish a connection. - 16 -

https://www.attnetwork.org Further, the connection between the node A and the node B has been established at this time, and the point-to-point message can be directly sent through the connection, and the point-to-point occurrence message can be effectively performed by the node A and the node B. Through the blockchain network point-to-point communication protocol, a point-to-point data transmission connection can be established in the anonymous system of the blockchain, and the anonymity of the point-to-point parties is still maintained. The two parties establishing the connection can transmit private data through the connection, and the connected The establishment requires the consent of both parties, and there is no risk of abuse. Other nodes on the network only know that such a connection exists, but cannot obtain the private message transmitted in the connection. Through the blockchain network point-to-point communication protocol, all parties can be While maintaining anonymity, it can directly establish a point-to- point data connection, can establish a point-to-point data transmission connection in the anonymous system of the blockchain, and still maintain the anonymity of the point-to-point parties. Although examples have been shown and described, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes, modifications, substitutions, and alterations can be made to these embodiments without departing from the principles and spirit. - 17 -

https://www.attnetwork.org 2 Design Principles 2.1 System overview 2.2 Product architecture - 18 -

https://www.attnetwork.org - 19 -

https://www.attnetwork.org 2.3 Deployment framework 2.4 System goals 2.4.1 Availability Maximize the impossible triangle 2.4.2 Throughput - 20 -

https://www.attnetwork.org Combining layering and sharding technology, the on-chain transaction TPS can reach 20,000. 2.4.3 Fault tolerance Under the premise of not exceeding 51% attacks, the fault tolerance of the entire system can reach 99.99%. 2.4.4 Scalability Adjust the scalability of the system through a scalable second-tier network. 2.4.5 Low cohesion Through the necessary node logic, the maximum aggregate transaction capacity. 2.4.6 Coupling Through the plug-in and TPTP protocol, reduce the coupling of the system. 2.4.7 Self-healing Through PoC and PoR, the on-chain accidents are restored as quickly as possible. 3 Basic Agreement (ATT) 3.1 Previous achievements In order to clarify the basic communication protocol of ATT, let's first look at the Internet's seven-layer protocol model. - 21 -

https://www.attnetwork.org OSI seven-layer network TCP/IP four-layer Corresponding network protocol model conceptual model Application layer HTTP, TFTP, FTP, NFS, WAIS, SMTP Presentation layer Application layer Telnet, Rlogin, SNMP, Gopher Session layer SMTP, DNS Transport layer Transport layer TCP, UDP Network layer Network layer IP, ICMP, ARP, PARP, AKP, UUCP FDDI, Ethernet, Arpanet, PDN, SLIP, Data link layer Data link layer PPP Physical layer IEEE 802.1A, IEEE 802.2 ~ IEEE 802.11 3.1.1 HTTP/HTTPS protocol HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is an application layer protocol and is a stateless protocol. The protocol itself does not save any information of the user, and each request is independent. Independent requests can reduce the pressure on the server and support larger concurrent requests. HTTP/1.0 Disadvantages: non-persistent connection (short connection), each request requires 2 RTT overhead (three handshake each time). - 22 -

https://www.attnetwork.org The server burden is heavy, but the browser can have multiple concurrent TCP connections at the same time, and each connection processes a request, which can reduce the response time. HTTP/1.1 Persistent connection (long connection). After the request is sent, a continuous connection is obtained for a period of time. Later requests can be continuously sent through this link, and it is not limited to the same page, as long as it is a request to the same server. - 23 -

https://www.attnetwork.org 3.1.2 RDP protocol RDP, Remote Desktop Protocol, is a multi-channel (mutil-channel) protocol that allows users (clients or "local computers") to connect to a computer (server or "remote") that provides Microsoft terminal services. computer"). Most Windows, Linux, FreeBSD, Mac OS X have corresponding clients. The server listens to the data sent to TCP 3389 port. Windows has provided terminal services from NT. It is a network protocol technology (Citrix) bought by Microsoft. The server needs to be installed and configured, and the client needs to connect to the program. Terminal service allows any terminal with permissions to log in to the server with a known account, and can use the resources in the account, including software and hardware resources. At the same time, after the protocol is upgraded, the client can use local resources after connecting. Including local printer, local sound playback, local disk resources and local hardware interface. All calculations are performed on the server side, and the client only needs to handle network connection, receive data, interface display and device data output. At present, the linux client programs for RDP services include winconnect, linrdp, and rdesktop. The first two have no source code, but redsktop has been developed by the original individual and the public code has evolved into the current project team. 3.1.3 PcoIP protocol PCoIP (PC over IP) provides a wide range of users on a LAN or WAN with the best desktop experience for delivered remote applications or the entire remote desktop environment, including applications, images, audio, and video content. PCoIP compensates for inconveniences caused by increased latency or reduced bandwidth, ensuring end users remain productive under any network conditions. The PCoIP display protocol can be used for remote applications and remote desktops that use virtual machines, physical machines with Teradici host cards, or shared session desktops on RDS hosts. - 24 -

https://www.attnetwork.org 3.1.4 HDX / ICA protocol HDX is inspired by the ICA protocol. HDX uses advanced "Adaptive Active Coordination" technology, which can sense the basic capabilities of data centers, networks, and equipment, and dynamically optimize the performance of end-to-end delivery systems to adapt to a variety of unique User scene. This open, adaptive design also enables HDX technology-enabled products such as Citrix XenDesktop and Citrix XenApp to use a variety of innovative technologies from third-party software, servers, devices, and processor partners to improve the end- user experience. HDX technology provides a set of features that provide a "HD" experience for users of Windows applications and desktops, any device, on any network. HDX is a Citrix ICA remote protocol based on ICA technology. The ICA protocol is based on TCP / IP and RTP / UDP, and has uniquely designed mobile network with high network network variability and low bandwidth and high latency. Supports three technical principles of HDX: redirection technology, adaptive compression, and data deduplication-collaboratively optimizing the user experience, reducing bandwidth consumption and increasing the scalability of the hosting server. 3.1.5 SPICE protocol SPICE, the Simple Protocol for Independent Computing Environment (Simple Protocol for Independent Computing Environment) is one of the main technical components of Red Hat Enterprise Virtual Desktop Edition. It has an adaptive remote submission protocol and can provide the same end users as the physical desktop. Experience. With a client that supports the SPICE protocol (such as remote-viewer) or through a browser, users can access their virtual desktops. Spice consists of four parts: protocol, client side, server side, and virtual machine side. among them, 1) Protocol: It is the criterion that the client side, server side and virtual machine side interact when interacting with each other; - 25 -

https://www.attnetwork.org 2) Client: Responsible for receiving and converting virtual machine data, and sending user input data to the virtual machine, so that users can interact with the virtual machine; 3) Server: It is a user layer component integrated in Hypervisor, so that Hypervisor (such as QEMU) supports Spice protocol; Virtual machine side: refers to all necessary components deployed inside the virtual machine, such as QXL driver, Spice Agent, etc. The figure above shows the basic framework of Spice and how the graphic command flow reaches the Spice terminal from inside the virtual machine (the platform environment is QEMU + libSpice). The graphics command starts when a graphics application inside the virtual machine requests a drawing operation (such as a GDI command) from the OS. Afterwards, Spice will use the QXL driver installed inside the virtual machine to capture the drawing operations of the application, which will be converted into Spice QXL commands and passed to the QEMU virtual QXL device backend. Next, LibSpice will read the above QXL command, reorganize and optimize it, encapsulate it into the Spice protocol message format, and send it to the terminal. Finally, the terminal parses the corresponding graphic operation message according to the Spice protocol, and then completes the screen update - 26 -

https://www.attnetwork.org operation. Spice graphics command flow The command interaction process for the Spice Agent is located inside the virtual machine. Spice Server and client use Agent to perform a series of actions inside the virtual machine, such as setting the virtual machine display configuration. Spice Agent interacts with VDIPort devices (devices virtualized by QEMU) through VDIPort device drivers located inside the virtual machine, and VDIPort virtual devices interact with Spice Server through QEMU's VDI Interface, so that Spice Agent, Spice Server, and Spice Client can be implemented. The interaction between the participants, in which the message format complies with the Spice protocol. Spice Agent graphical command flow Spice clients handle different events by establishing different channels. The client implements each Channel as a separate thread, specifically by defining a RedChannel base class that runs in a separate thread, and then derives the specific functional classes needed from this base class. - 27 -

https://www.attnetwork.org The client Channel class includes: RedClient, DisplayChannel, CursorChannel, InputsChannel, PlaybackChannel, RecordChannel, etc. RedClient is responsible for establishing the main channel, and then the main channel creates the following channels through channel_type: 1) DisplayChannel: responsible for processing graphics commands, pictures, and video stream display; 2) InputsChannel: responsible for processing keyboard and mouse input; 3) CursorChannel: responsible for the display of the pointing device position, visibility and shape; 4) PlaybackChannel: Responsible for receiving voice data from the server and playing it on the client; 5) RecordChannel: Responsible for capturing sound from the client's sound device and passing it to the virtual machine. - 28 -

https://www.attnetwork.org Spice Server implementation The Spice protocol is the core of the entire virtual desktop. With the help of the Spice protocol, the various components of a virtual desktop can interact smoothly. Spice agreement 3.1.6 RFB protocol RFB (Remote Frame Buffer) is a simple protocol for remote graphics users. Because it works at the frame buffer level, it can be applied to all window systems, such as X11, Windows and Mac systems. - 29 -

https://www.attnetwork.org Remote end users using machines (such as monitors, keyboards, and mice) are called RFB clients, and those providing frame buffer changes are called RFB servers. RFB is an application layer protocol based on TCP. RFB is a true "thin airliner" protocol. The focus of the RFB protocol design is to reduce the hardware requirements for the client. In this way, the client can run on many different hardware, and the task of the client will be as simple as possible. The RFB protocol is stateless to the client. That is: if the client is disconnected from the server, then if it reconnects to the same server, the state of the client is saved. Furthermore, a different client can be used to connect to the same RFB server. The new client has been able to obtain the same user status as the previous client. Therefore, the user's application interface becomes very convenient. 3.1.7 X protocol The X protocol consists of X server and X client: The X server manages the display-related hardware settings on the host (such as graphics card, hard disk, mouse, etc.). It is responsible for drawing and displaying screen images, and notifying X clients of input settings (such as keyboard and mouse). X client (ie X application) is mainly responsible for event processing (ie program logic). 3.2 ATT protocol 3.2.1 What is ATT - 30 -

https://www.attnetwork.org ATT includes two layers of duplex protocols. The first layer is used as the basic communication protocol to carry the basic connection functions; the second layer is used as the extended protocol to carry the cross-product communication functions. ATT integrates the four major technologies of blockchain, DNS, smart contracts and instant messaging protocols, and makes cross-platform communication possible by uniformly identifying cross-chain account addresses. 3.2.2 ATT Protocol head Content Protocol version Reserved Logical package length Bytes 1 1 2 The current Logical length, from version number Value 0 versions are all 3 to the end of this package 3.2.3 ATT Message format Virtual Virtual channels Content Type Flag channels count number Bytes 1 2 2 1 Value 0x64/0x68 0x001 0x03eb~0x03ee 0x70/0xf0 Type description 0x64: Client sends data 0x68: Client receives data 3.2.4 ATT protocol data compression Content Bytes Value Data length in layer 2 XX 17 00 stands for specific data, and the First level type mark 2 last 4 bytes are skipped when 0000 - 31 -

https://www.attnetwork.org Content Bytes Value Basic channel number 2 ea 03,fixed Basic channel number 2 ea 03,fixed(share?) Unknown data1 2 01 00 Network package 2 XX sequence number Data length after 2 XX Specific data type 1 D Data compression type 1 00 Uncompressed Data compression length 2 00 3.2.5 ATT protocol scalability The ATT protocol can be extended in the following ways: New encoding A new protocol can be added for compatibility with existing clients and servers. Because existing servers will ignore new encodings they don't support. Therefore, the client makes a request through the new encoding method, and no result is returned. Pseudo-encoding In addition to the actual encoding method, the client can also request a "pseudo-encoding" notification server, which supports the extension of a certain protocol. If the server does not support this extension, it will ignore it. It's worth noting: The client must first assume that the server does not support this extension until it is confirmed that the server supports it. - 32 -

https://www.attnetwork.org 4 Public chain construction 4.1 Node Logic 4.1.1 Agency contributions In a P2P network, every computer participating in the network can receive the name of the node. In the network, all nodes are responsible for providing network services. This is because the interconnectivity of the network nodes allows for interoperability. Blockchain network refers to the set of nodes that execute a given blockchain P2P protocol. The entire network orchestrates and coordinates each user's actions in the network in a fully federated, decentralized, and distributed manner. This means that computer networks around the world can constantly transmit new transactions to each other. Every computer in this network is a node and it has downloaded the complete blockchain. In this way, the network becomes redundant, and working together makes it scalable in scalability. Due to the decentralization of the blockchain, anyone can participate in it. Just download the node software from and execute it. Generally, this feature is supported in the main wallet of each item. Initially, the network started from the origin of the blockchain until it was synchronized with the network. At this point, the nodes started to run in full, not only allowing verification transactions, but also supporting the overall image of the blockchain. Usually nodes can perform the following functions: routing, blockchain database, mining and wallet services. These nodes are a single part of the largest data structure of a blockchain. When node owners voluntarily contribute their own computing resources to store and verify transactions, they have the opportunity to charge transaction fees and receive rewards in potential cryptocurrencies. Processing these transactions can require a lot of computing and processing power, which means that the average computer power is - 33 -

https://www.attnetwork.org not enough. Generally speaking, professional miners tend to invest in very powerful computing equipment called CPU (Central Processing Unit) or GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) to meet the demand for the processing power required to verify transactions, and to obtain s return. A node can be a communication endpoint or a redistribution point of communication, linked to other nodes. Every node in the network is considered equal, however, some nodes play different roles in the way they support the network. For example, not all nodes will store a complete copy of the blockchain. A complete node downloads a complete copy of the blockchain and checks for new transactions that occur based on the consensus protocol used by that particular cryptocurrency or utility token. All nodes use the same consensus protocol to maintain mutual compatibility. The nodes in the network are responsible for confirming and validating transactions and putting them into blocks. Regarding whether a transaction is valid and should be added to a block with other transactions, no matter how other nodes act, nodes can always draw their own conclusions. 4.1.2 Node selection In a blockchain network, there are traditionally three types of nodes that provide different functions in the network. These node types are: Broadcast nodes: They only issue transactions and receive blockchain information from third parties. They follow the most powerful mining power, known as light wallets, which are widely used on mobile devices or are only used by people who don't want to download the entire blockchain. Complete nodes: Install complete node software, such as Bitcoin Core, in addition to having the most secure wallet, and download a copy of the blockchain to become a node in the Bitcoin network. As a result, you will issue transactions, propagate the rest of the network, and verify that consistent rules are met. Mining nodes: In addition to operating their favorite software miners (BTCMiner, CGMiner), the miners must have a copy of the blockchain. In - 34 -

https://www.attnetwork.org addition to mining Bitcoin to help create new blocks, these nodes will also publish and disseminate transactions. 4.1.3 Node responsibility When a miner or user tries to add a new transaction block to the blockchain through some mechanism of the protocol, it transmits the block to all nodes of the network. Depending on the legitimacy of the block (signature and validity of the transaction), the node can accept or reject the block. When a node accepts a new transaction block, it saves it and stores it on other blocks it has already stored. In summary, the role of nodes is: They can check if a transaction block is valid and accept or reject it. Store and store transaction blocks (store blockchain transaction history). Transfer and extend this transaction history to other nodes that may need to be synchronized with the blockchain (they must be updated in the transaction history). 4.1.4 Node Disaster Recovery Nodes can be online or offline. Online nodes receive, save, and transmit all the last blocks of a transaction from other nodes, while nodes that are not connected do not. When an offline node comes back online, it must first catch up with the rest of the blockchain by downloading all blocks added to the blockchain since the node was disconnected. This process is often called blockchain synchronization. In theory, a complete blockchain can be executed on a single node, but because it is stored in a single device, it is very vulnerable to power outages, hacking or system failure. The more complete nodes running in the blockchain, the more resilient they will be in the face of such a disaster. When blockchain data is distributed across so many devices, it is very difficult for a corrupted entity to delete all of this data at once. Due to the global crisis, a large number of nodes have suddenly dropped and become inaccessible. In theory, a single node can keep the entire blockchain running. Even if all nodes are disconnected, it only - 35 -

https://www.attnetwork.org takes a single node with a complete blockchain history to get back online and make all data accessible again. These nodes are also vulnerable to computer attacks, which may change their function. For example, a pirate can violate the software's security, and without changing the blockchain data, it can redirect the node's profits to a different address written by its owner. Address theft attacks are the most common type of attack for this type of software, which is why developers recommend using an updated version of their blockchain software. These security flaws are easy to resolve, and you can use some computer security common sense, or use software tools to create security mechanisms to isolate the blockchain software from the rest of the computer system. These measures include: Use official or developer software and have a long and proven track record. Protect the private keys, mnemonic keys and any other privileged information of our activities in the blockchain. Use computers or electronic equipment only for our mining activities. Use sandbox software to isolate software applications from the rest of the system. Use MAC (mandatory access control) system privileges that allow us to run our blockchain software with minimal access to the operating system and other system APIs (this isolation is larger than the sandbox). 4.2 Consensus Foundation 4.2.1 Consensus by contribution The Contribution Authorization Proof Mechanism (PoC) is a modified version of the Delegated Proof of Stake. It is a scalable and governance alternative used by many smart contract platforms such as EOS and Tron. It was built with enterprise adoption in mind and aims to reward participation in the network By. Compared with other PoS and PoW mechanisms, PoC aims to provide: 1) clear governance structure; 2) better throughput; 3) higher efficiency. - 36 -

https://www.attnetwork.org 4.2.2 Consensus reward Rewards will be generated after each block is accepted and then sent to the library. For each new block reward, all ATters who participate in the network as authorized or authorized recipients will receive a certain number of ATTG to reflect their respective contributions. This ATTG can be exchanged for ATT at any time. The ATT model is unique in that ATTers can not only receive bet rewards because they are P-Rep or authorized to P-Rep, but also receive bet rewards for voting on DApps and EEPs and / or running DApps or EEPs. In short, this provides an opportunity for all ATters to contribute; no matter how technically inclined you are. In other DPoS systems, bet rewards are usually only obtained by group producers. PoC is an organization that implements a model that is beneficial not only to elected P-Reps, but also to those P-Reps that contribute to the network in other ways. 4.2.3 Consensus Algorithm For reference, there is no economic motivation to vote for EOS BP. The only benefit is governance. So far, about 25% of EOS community members have voted, and 47% of EOS outstanding users have participated in the voting. For Tron, based on the total supply, the number of votes for Super Delegates is even less, only about 7%. However, the 27 super-representative nodes that voted the most will create new blocks and share rewards with their voters. It is estimated Dapp and EEP will be rewarded accordingly. This is an essential difference from any other platform. Rather than the foundation providing funding for whatever they see fit (such as how Ethereum currently works), the community itself can decide who receives the grant (rewarded in the form of a block) or who delegates the ATT project or improvement suggestions they feel is best The internet. 4.2.4 Complete Consensus Logic - 37 -

https://www.attnetwork.org In PoC, incentives work as P-Rep, DApp, or EEP. A key difference between ATT's solution and other platforms is that it provides economic incentives and economic expansion proposals (EEPs) for dapps. The dapp will receive rewards based on: 1) the authorization of ATters; 2) the ability to implement DAU and/or Tx level thresholds (to be determined). Currently, ATT is building its virtual step function to limit friction from the user's perspective. Once implemented, the DApp will be able to bet on the ATT, thereby generating a virtual step that will be used to pay the ATT transaction fees associated with the use of the DApp. As discussed in the previous article, these rewards may be meaningful compared to traditional business models. Recall that even a modest 5% network license can reach $ 20,000 per month (under previously stated conditions). The other in the PoC framework is the concept of EEP. ATTers can propose EEPs, accept commissions from their peers, and receive funding for their respective programs through group rewards. The use and scope of EEP is wide. At one end of this range, imagine a group of developers who want to improve the core code of ATT to run as an EEP, provide monthly updates on their progress, and take turns to get funding. Note that this is similar to Zcash. In Zcash, core developers/foundations will receive 20% of all block rewards for further development. On the other hand, EEP can be as simple as a community manager looking for funding to host a local party on a specific date. - 38 -

https://www.attnetwork.org 4.3 Mining rewards 4.3.1 Definition of mining in this system Bitcoin is a distributed peer-to-peer network system. So there is no "central" server and no central issuing authority. Bitcoin is produced through "mining". Mining is to verify a Bitcoin transaction and participate in competition to solve a mathematical problem. Any participant (such as a person running a complete protocol stack) can be a miner and use their computing power to verify and record transactions. On average, every 10 minutes someone can verify the transactions that happened in the past 10 minutes, and he will get new coins in return for his work. In essence, mining distributes the currency issuance and settlement functions of the central bank, and replaces the needs of central issuers with global computing power competition. Mining is a figurative metaphor, because in the Bitcoin network, competitive computing gets newly issued Bitcoin rewards, much like the process of mining minerals buried in the ground. Mining is the process of new issuance of bitcoin by the bitcoin system. It is also the process of miners competing for bookkeeping rights and obtaining newly issued bitcoin rewards. A miner is a person or organization that competes for mining. The actual mining is proof of proof of work (POW) in the Bitcoin system. The Bitcoin system is a large ledger, and a page of ledger is issued every 10 minutes (this page of ledger is also called a block). The miner records the transaction in a page of ledger and synchronizes to other people. If this miner can calculate this first, The correct answer in a round shows that he has paid a certain amount of work and is a person who has the right to keep books. This problem can be understood as a probability problem, which is very difficult to calculate, but it is very simple to verify. Mining is a continuous problem-solving process. It is a relay race, once every 10 minutes. After the results of this time, everyone starts a new round of competition. - 39 -

https://www.attnetwork.org 4.3.2 The value of mining to the entire network The so-called mining, for Bitcoin, is actually mining = creating value = fair distribution of value, which is logically connected. Equivalent to a chemical, with this characteristic, it can naturally react with human nature. In essence, mining is the most important step in the token economy, but most of the imitations of Bitcoin mining have failed. If a currency does not improve for six months and a year, it must be a mistake in the design of the token economic model. You can only leave a bunch of numbers in your hands. EOS, in fact, is well designed when it comes to mining (general certification economic model) design alone. More in line with this idea. Its value goal is an ultra-high-performance DAPP operating platform. Then let the super nodes go to mine and the super nodes provide super performance. The value created is in line with the needs of the eos application and the corresponding value distribution. Of course, whether the 1% issuance as a miner's fee is within a reasonable range is another issue. It is not the same application as Bitcoin, so don't make a sharp comparison. Being a base currency is a trillion-dollar business that requires extremely high security barriers and different value propositions. Most Internet apps, in fact, actually Not so much business volume, just the pursuit of performance, does not require a very high safety factor. 4.3.3 Resources Consumed by Mining Computing power (also known as hash rate) is a measure of the processing power of the Bitcoin network. The speed at which the computer (CPU) calculates the output of the hash function. Computing power is the ability to mine. The probability that you will be able to mine Bitcoin depends on the proportion of your computing power in the world. The speed of problem solving is related to strong computing power. - 40 -

https://www.attnetwork.org How many hash collisions a miner can do per second is a representative of its computing power, and the unit is written as hash/s. Bitcoin's entire network computing power has fully entered the P computing power era (1P = 1024T, 1T = 1024G, 1G = 1024M, 1M = 1024k) 1 kH/s = 1,000 hashes per second. 1 MH/s = 1,000,000 hashes per second. 1 GH/s = 1,000,000,000 hashes per second. 1 TH/s = 1,000,000,000,000 hashes per second. 1 PH/s = 1,000,000,000,000,000 hashes per second. 1 EH/s = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 hashes per second. As of August 9, 2018, Bitcoin's entire network computing power was 46.08 EH / s. Then calculate it, 46.08 * 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 = 46,080,000,000,000,000,000,000 operations per second. Computing power is growing very fast. 4.3.4 Rewards for miners Passive dividend For passive dividends, profits are collected during each transaction within an interchangeable token. Therefore, if the manager of a homogeneous token decides to set a passive bonus for it, in each transaction, not only will the EVT be charged as fuel, but also the additional cost of the homogeneous token. We correct these deviations by recording two fields on the chain, with_amount indicates that the fee will be included in the amount, so the payee will receive (amount-fee). outside_amount Instead, the payee will receive the amount, but the payer will spend (amount + fee). Active dividend Active dividends are much simpler than passive dividends. Dividends can be realized only by meeting certain conditions. This model is very important for the demanding project party, and it is also a very mature model in real scenarios. - 41 -

https://www.attnetwork.org We formulate active dividends through the rules declared on the official website at the beginning of the project, so that miners can get the corresponding reward tokens. 4.4 Penalty mechanism 4.4.1 Definition of evil in this system If and only if, in this system, many miners have decided to join a new mine group and mine on its new block. The problem is that the blockchain network is a huge and widely distributed network, and communication and collaboration within it is almost impossible. Most miners will only choose the path that maximizes their returns, which is why the Nash equilibrium of the main chain has been achieved. 4.4.2 Risk control To build a falsifiable credit network model, what is needed first is a large set of data of various dimensions such as behavior data, consumption data, property data, and then processed to obtain a simplified credit evaluation. The problem is not that there is no such data, but that these data are held by different institutions and companies, and the data of these institutions are not interoperable. Because the ability of small companies to realize data is obviously much lower than that of large companies. As a means of production, data cannot be effectively protected. In addition, it involves data sharing such as personal privacy, and cannot directly transmit plain text. The major Internet companies have a lot of user data and make money from it, and users don't get these additional benefits. Based on the design of the blockchain, the data processing is made into a Mapreduce method. The calculations concentrated in one center are divided into multiple small parallel calculations. The results of the parallel calculations are collectively returned to obtain a summary result. For example, consumption data is in Alibaba, travel data is in Ctrip, financial data is in ICBC, and education data is in the Ministry of Education. The data in these four dimensions are stored as 4 nodes. The Ministry of Public Security calculates the citizen's credit data and initiates a data use - 42 -

https://www.attnetwork.org request. However, the data is not passed directly to these institutions, but the result of the calculation is passed. Each request is paid for 1 token. In this way, the owner of the data can benefit by contributing to the data. A new connection was established between multiple encouraged domains that were not interoperable through algorithms and an economic cooperation system between computers. 4.4.3 Malicious information P + Epsilon attack However, a proof-of-work system is vulnerable to a special type of attack called a "P + Epsilon attack." To understand the principle of this attack, we must define the following terms in advance. Non-collaborative selection model: In a non-coordinated selection model, all participants have no incentive to cooperate with others. Participants may form groups, but at any time, this group will not be large enough to occupy a majority. Collaborative selection model: In this model, all participants collaborate for a common incentive. Now, suppose the blockchain is a non- coordinated choice model, but what if there is an incentive for miners to take action to damage the integrity of the blockchain? What if a particular action could be taken by a miner to take a bribe? The bribery attacker model is now referenced. Now, suppose the blockchain is a non-coordinated choice model, but what if there is an incentive for miners to take action to damage the integrity of the blockchain? What if a particular action could be taken by a miner to take a bribe? The bribery attacker model is now referenced. 4.4.4 Compliance Extension (PoR) Now, suppose an attacker enters the system and bribes miners to cooperate with each other. What should we do? This new model is the bribery attacker model. To successfully bribe the system, an attacker must have two resources: - 43 -

https://www.attnetwork.org Budget: The total amount of cash the attacker is willing to pay miners to perform a particular operation Cost: The amount actually paid to the miners at the end. However, if an attacker decides to launch an attack on the blockchain, we will get an interesting puzzle .... At this point, a "P + Epsilon attack" will occur. We can refer to the following figure: Imagine a simple game, such as elections. If people vote for someone and vote for the same person as everyone else, then there is a gain, otherwise there is no gain. So imagine that a bribe accesses the system and makes this rule for an individual. If no one else voted when you voted, you would get a "P + ε " gain. In addition to the normal gain P, there is an additional bribe gain ε. So now, the return matrix looks like this: Now imagine this scenario. Everyone in the game knows that if they vote, they will probably get a profit, but if they don't vote, there is only a 50% probability that they will get a profit. What do you think participants will do? Of course, they will vote to ensure returns. This is where the fun lies. As shown in the matrix, the bribe pays only the fee "ε" when someone voted while others did not. However, in this case, because everyone voted, the Nash equilibrium point turns into: - 44 -

https://www.attnetwork.org Yes, no bribe pays bribes! So let's look at this from a briber's perspective: Convince the group to vote in some way. Achieve your goals without paying bribes. This is a huge win-win situation for bribers, and at the same time, it has a significant impact on the blockchain, especially in systems based on proof of work. Let's check out the previous virtual blockchain again: Assume that the bribers really want to make the blockchain hard fork, and at the same time announce the bribe fee ε for those miners who choose to join the new chain, which will stimulate the entire miner community to collaborate and join the new chain. Obviously, this requires a very high bribe fee to achieve the above situation, but as we saw in the bribery attack model above, the attacker does not even need to give this amount. According to Vitalik Buterin, this is one of the biggest problems with proof-of-work systems, which is vulnerability to "P + Epsilon attacks". 4.4.5 Evil punishment Before each transaction, the two parties request the credit history of the other party. Use a credit history provided by a third party to pay 1 token. After the transaction is completed, the credit of the counterparty is updated, data is contributed, and 2 tokens are rewarded. Data is - 45 -

https://www.attnetwork.org constantly being produced. You generated a bad default record on the online loan platform last minute. This risk signal will be broadcast to the entire network. Didi requested the driver's credit history before dispatching the order. When the risk signal was found, Didi would not order it. A credit model based on such a blockchain technology system allows good people to benefit everywhere and bad people to be limited everywhere. We are also about to achieve the first credit symmetry in human history to build a society in which the cost of social operation is no longer determined by bad people. 5 Cross-Product Transport Protocol (TPTP) 5.1 Previous achievements 5.1.1 Text Transfer Protocol The TFTP protocol is based on the transfer protocol between the server and the client. At the beginning, the client sends a connection request to the server, and after the server answers, the two connections are established. The client then sends a file transfer request to the server. The server divides the file required by the client into multiple small blocks and passes them to the client in turn. The client sends a response to the server after receiving each small block. Send the next small block. When all file blocks have been transferred, the two connections are disconnected. The TFTP server program usually listens for client requests on port 69. It is worth noting that when the server and the client are transmitting data blocks, the server will use a random port instead of port 69, which is used to listen for requests. This is so that the server can respond to multiple client connections at the same time. The server and different clients use different ports for data communication, so that the data blocks required by different clients will not be confused. - 46 -

https://www.attnetwork.org When the server and the client send file data, data is transmitted in a manner called a "locking step". That is, the server sends a data block to the client, and then does nothing until it receives the response data packet sent back by the client. It does not send the next data block until it receives a response from the client that the data block has been received. This method makes data transmission inefficient, but ensures that the data transmission process is simple enough. At the same time, it ensures that data transmission is convenient when transmission errors occur. At the same time, the client does not need to consider how to block data blocks when they arrive out of order. Proper assembly. 5.1.2 Picture transfer The English name of picture transfer protocol is picture transfer protocol, abbreviated as ptp. PTP is a standard developed by Kodak in consultation with Microsoft. This section describes a terminal picture transfer protocol file synchronization method and terminal. The method includes: receiving a PTP start instruction; and determining at least one first directory from the terminal according to a multimedia file type, where the first directory contains multimedia Directory of files; synchronizing multimedia files corresponding to the at least one first directory. According to the PTP startup instruction, dynamically obtain all eligible directories containing multimedia files in the terminal, and synchronize the multimedia files in these eligible directories to the PC side. Thus, the terminal can automatically synchronize all eligible multimedia files. 5.1.3 File transfer File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a set of standard protocols used for file transfer on the network. It works on the seventh layer of the OSI model and the fourth layer of the TCP model, the application layer. It is not UDP. Before the client establishes a connection with the server, it must go through a "three-way handshake" process to ensure that the connection between the client and the server is reliable, and it is connection-oriented, providing a reliable guarantee for data transmission. - 47 -

https://www.attnetwork.org FTP allows users to communicate with another host through file operations (such as adding, deleting, modifying, checking, and transmitting files). However, users do not actually log in to the computer they want to access and become full users. FTP programs can be used to access remote resources, enabling users to transfer files back and forth, directory management, and access e-mail, even if the two computers may be equipped with different Operating system and file storage. 5.1.4 Voice Message Network Voice Protocol (English: NetworkVoiceProtocol, abbreviation: NVP) is a pioneer in computer network protocols that sends human speech through packetized communication networks. Therefore, the VoIP protocol can be regarded as the ancestor of today's VoIP technology. The network voice protocol was first implemented in 1973 by Danny Cohen, a network researcher at the University of Southern California's Institute of Informatics, whose research funding came from the US Advanced Research Projects Agency's (ARPA) Network Secure Communications program. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of secure, high-quality, low-bandwidth, real- time, full-duplex digital voice communications through packet-switched computer communication networks, and to protect their content by means of existing encryption equipment. The main goal of this research is to demonstrate the digital encrypted high-quality, low-bandwidth, and encrypted voice processing capabilities to meet the global encrypted voice communications part of general military needs. The previous use of the network voice protocol was to use a variety of different speech coding techniques on the ARPANET to send voice messages to each other from different nodes. These codes include linear predictive coding and continuous variable slope incremental modulation (Continuously variable slope delta modulation). Its co- researchers include Steve Casner, Randy Cole, Paul Raveling, Paul Raveling (Institute of Informatics), Jim Forgie (Lincoln Labs), Mike - 48 -

https://www.attnetwork.org McCammon (Culler-Harrison), John Markel (Speech Communications Research Laboratory), and John Makhoul (Bolt, Beranek and Newman BBN). 5.1.5 Audio and Video Calls RTSP reference in the development of many of the HTTP / 1.1 protocol, even many description and HTTP / 1.1 are identical. RTSP reason deliberately using similar syntax and operations with HTTP / 1.1, largely for compatibility with existing Web infrastructure, and as such, the extension mechanism of HTTP / 1.1, most can be introduced directly into the RTSP. The collection of media streams controlled by RTSP can be defined with a Presentation Description. The so-called presentation refers to the collection of one or more media streams provided by the streaming server to the client, and the presentation description contains the media information flow, such as data encoding / decoding algorithms, network addresses, and other media content stream. Although RTSP server also use the identifier to distinguish each flow connection session (the Session), but RTSP connection and is not bound to the transport layer connection (e.g., TCP, etc.), that is to say during the whole RTSP connection, the user can open or RTSP Close multiple reliable transport connections to the RTSP server to make RTSP requests. In addition, RTSP connections can also be based on connectionless transmission protocols (such as UDP, etc.). RTSP protocol supports the following operations: retrieve media: allows users to submit a presentation description to the media server via HTTP or other methods. If the presentation is multicast, the presentation description contains the multicast address and port number used for the media stream; if the presentation is unicast, only the destination address should be provided in the presentation description for security. Invite to join: The media server can be invited to participate in an ongoing meeting, or play back the media in the presentation, or record the entire media or its subset in the presentation, which is very suitable for distributed teaching. Add media: Notify users of newly available media streams, which is especially useful for live lectures. Similar to - 49 -

https://www.attnetwork.org HTTP / 1.1, RTSP requests can also be handled by a proxy, channel or cache. 5.2 Improved transport protocol 5.2.1 Short connection message The client initiates a connection request to the server, the server receives the request, and then the two parties establish a connection. The client sends a message to the server, the server responds to the client, and then reads and writes are completed. At this time, either of the two parties can initiate the close operation, but generally the client initiates the close operation first. Why, the general server will not close the connection immediately after replying to the client, of course, there are no special circumstances. From the description above, short connections generally only pass a read and write operation between the client / server. The advantage of a short connection is that it is relatively simple to manage, and the existing connections are all useful connections and do not require additional control measures. 5.2.2 Long Connection Message The client initiates a connection to the server, the server accepts the client connection, and the two parties establish a connection. After the client and server finish reading and writing once, the connection between them is not actively closed, and subsequent reading and writing operations will continue to use this connection. First, let's talk about the TCP keep-alive function mentioned in the detailed explanation of TCP / IP. The keep-alive function is mainly provided for server applications. The server application wants to know whether the client host crashes, so that it can use resources on behalf of the client. If the client has disappeared, leaving a semi-open connection on the server, and the server is waiting for data from the client, the server should wait for the client's data. The keep-alive function is trying to detect this semi-open connection on the server. connection. - 50 -

https://www.attnetwork.org If a given connection does not perform any action within two hours, the server sends a probe segment to the client. The client host must be in one of the following four states: The client host is still running and reachable from the server. The client's TCP response is normal, and the server also knows that the other party is normal. The server resets the keepalive timer after two hours. The client host has crashed and is shutting down or restarting. In either case, the client's TCP is not responding. The server will not receive a response to the probe and will time out after 75 seconds. The server sends a total of 10 such probes at 75-second intervals. If the server does not receive a response, it considers the client host to be closed and terminates the connection. The client host crashed and has restarted. The server will receive a response to its keep-alive probe. This response is a reset, causing the server to terminate the connection. The client is running normally, but the server is unreachable. This situation is similar to 2. TCP can find that it has not received the response from the probe. 5.2.3 Audio and video messages The full name of RTP is Real-time Transport Protocol (Real-time Transport Protocol). RTP protocol is often used in streaming media systems (with RTCP protocol or RTSP protocol). Because RTP itself has a time stamp, it is used as a formate in ffmpeg. Each RTP datagram is composed of a header and a payload. The meaning of the first 12 bytes of the header is fixed, and the payload can be audio or video data. 5.3 Cross-platform Transport Protocol (TPTP) 5.3.1 What is TPTP TPTP (Trans-Platform Transfer Protocal), a cross-platform transfer protocol, was initiated by the ATT Foundation for the first time. It does - 51 -

https://www.attnetwork.org not rely on specific social products as a transmission protocol. This protocol aims to open the silo barriers of various social products and make information available in the whole Products of the whole platform are freely distributed. 5.3.2 TPTP protocol header Content Single layer data length Packet type Flag Bytes 1 1 1 Value 2,From next byte 0xf0,Presentation data 0x80 5.3.3 TPTP Message Format Content Fitness value minimum value Maximum value Number of virtual 0x22=34 0x01 0xffff channels User number 0x22 0x01 0xfc17=64535 Token value 0x00 0x01 0xffff Proorities 0x01 0x01 0x01 Throughput 0x00 0x00 0x00 Height 0x01 0x01 0x01 Network logical packet 0xffff 0x0420=1056 0xffff=65535 length Version number 0x02 0x02 0x02 After all parts of the channel application are passed, the initial system connection is started. Starting from this data packet, network data - 52 -

https://www.attnetwork.org above the virtual channel layer needs to be encrypted. For details about the implementation of the encryption function, see the encryption module. The login network information structure is as follows: Content Bytes Value(Byte inversion) Encryption layer XX XX and below Idle Bytes 4 0x00000000 Auto login flag 4 Normal,0x33,auto:0x28 Domain name 2 If NULL is 0, multiply by 2 if there is value length Username length 2 If NULL is 0, multiply by 2 if there is value Password length 2 If NULL is 0, multiply by 2 if there is value Login program 2 If NULL is 0, multiply by 2 if there is value length Login path length 2 If NULL is 0, multiply by 2 if there is value Domain name Domain name 2 bytes save 1 character, and the last 2 value length+2 bytes are 0x0000 Username 2 bytes save 1 character, and the last 2 Username value length+2 bytes are 0x0000 Password Password 2 bytes save 1 character, and the last 2 character value length+2 bytes are 0x0000 Login Login program 2 bytes save 1 character, and the last 2 program name bytes are 0x0000 length+2 - 53 -

https://www.attnetwork.org Content Bytes Value(Byte inversion) Login path 2 bytes save 1 character, and the last 2 Login path value length+2 bytes are 0x0000 Encryption layer 4 80 00 00 00 15,represents authreq, license Licence flag 1 authentication key Version 1 4.0->02,5.x->03 Length of this 2 3a 00 layer Flag 2 01 00 Token length 2 0a 00 Tokenvalue 0x0a XX,10 bytes Hwid length 2 14 00 Hwid value 0x14 XX,20 bytes Signature value 0x10 XX,16 bytes 5.3.4 TPTP data compression The encrypted information set in the network communication connection in the initial module is submitted to the server. The encryption form implemented by the protocol is RSA / RC4. When the initial encryption and decryption keys are obtained (obtained after sending the initial connection information), after the initial connection ends, the client needs to send the initial information of the - 54 -

https://www.attnetwork.org system login to verify the correctness of the client's encryption and decryption. Since then, it has been authenticated by the license. After passing the authentication, all encrypted data is processed by the encryption and decryption layer. At the same time, the key needs to be saved, because encrypted data packets need to be continuously encrypted or decrypted correctly to get the correct data. Content Bytes Value Encryption layer 4 80 02 10 00 Licence flag 1 ff,indicates result, license authentication key Version 1 4.0->02,5.x->03 Length of this layer 2 10 00 Unknown data 1 4 07 00 00 00 Unknown data 2 4 02 00 00 00 Unknown data 3 4 04 00 00 00 5.3.5 TPTP scalability New security approach Adding a new type of security method will bring unlimited flexibility. It modifies some behaviors of the protocol without sacrificing existing client-server compatibility. The client and server can communicate with each other through a secure protocol. Of course, it is not necessarily similar to the original protocol. Protocol message Protocols can be reliably transmitted, such as byte streams or message- based. Like most protocols, it is connected via the TCP / IP protocol suite. The protocol is connected in three steps. The first is a handshake - 55 -

https://www.attnetwork.org message, the purpose of which is to negotiate the protocol version and encryption method. The second step is the initialization message, which is mainly used for client and server initialization messages. The last is the normal protocol interaction. The client can send messages on demand, and then get a response from the server. All messages start with a message type, followed by specific message data. The basic types of protocol message descriptions are: U8, U16, U32, S8, S16, S32. U represents an unsigned integer, and S represents a signed integer. All byte integers (except the pixel value itself) follow the big endian order. Big endian or little endian is related to cpu, which affects the order of integers in memory. Endian is high byte first, little endian is low byte first, and network endianness is generally big-endian. PIXEL represents a pixel value bytesPerPixel bytes, 8XbytesPerPixel = bits-per-pixel. 6 Economic model 6.1 PoC 6.1.1 What is contribution The contribution definition in this system is as follows: POC is built on the blockchain based on the cumulative contributions of user nodes, using the node contribution degree as the access, utilizing the uniqueness and accuracy of the distributed ledger of the blockchain to coordinate system nodes Confirm the data broadcasting authority and can verify the system. 6.1.2 Contribution sources - 56 -

https://www.attnetwork.org The entry criteria for the POC is to reach the contribution value specified by the system. The POC starts consensus at each round, and by contributing to the consensus vote, the working nodes are selected to complete the block generation and accounting work, and incentives are given, and the nodes that do not follow the rules are punished. 6.1.3 Contribution distribution The system contribution value consists of two parts: the user node's contribution to holding coins and the user node's work contribution. Among them, the contribution of holding money is related to the amount and length of holding money, and the contribution of work is related to the effective work of participating systems. 6.1.4 How the contribution distribution method promotes the entire network forward cycle On-chain consensus rules, mobile democracy, predictive markets, secondary voting, adaptive arbitration bias, experiments with decentralized dispute resolution, and other new technologies that have not yet emerged can lead the era of positive transformation of social governance more widely. On the one hand, the overall premise of these networks is-decentralized, open, license-free, difficult to review, and programmable. They are fundamentally different from past organizational models. As a result, they are often touted as a preferred alternative to existing models. On the other hand, as I pointed out earlier, the social and political dynamics in a decentralized network are very similar to any other human system. The uneven distribution of network-specific resources inevitably leads to a power structure. At the same time, maintaining and challenging structures becomes a decisive function of network governance. 6.1.5 Optimal Energy Efficiency Theory of the Whole Network - 57 -

https://www.attnetwork.org PoS has many notable variants, and similar models that do not necessarily use stubs as a form of verification. For example, Trusted Proof of Interest (DPoS) and Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance (DBFT) conduct community elections and grant verification rights to stakeholder nodes. Proof of Importance (PoI) models (such as the NEM blockchain model) mainly reward nodes for their positive contributions to their networks (such as special payment protocols). Although both PoW and PoS have reached the common goal of network integrity through some form of collective verification, their consensus methods differ significantly in concept and function, which often have different impacts on the entire blockchain community. The main difference between the two protocols is that PoW is temporarily committed to computing power to help protect its network, while PoS is temporarily committed to using existing wealth (or fairness) as a verification tool. PoC, as an upgrade variant of PoS, guarantees block efficiency through node contribution while ensuring the highest possible efficiency, so that the total energy efficiency is minimized. The potential in many different industries (including financial technology and other industries) is so great So that it cannot be ignored. From banking to media and communications, certain aspects of the technology provide systems with transparency and anonymity. The inherent immutability of the blockchain makes it accountable to the public. In addition, distributed applications (DApps) highlight the future of blockchain technology as a highly democratic software development, distribution, and integration platform. 6.2 PoR 6.2.1 What are rules In traditional business organizations, corporate culture and company systems, one soft and one hard, push the wheels of the organization forward, and these cultures and systems are more or less the dominant genes of the founder's personal genes. This kind of centralized three- - 58 -

https://www.attnetwork.org view mechanism determines the ceiling height of the company to a certain extent. Regulating the behavior of community members is the consensus reached by everyone's compromise. Approval takes effect, opposition is out, support is rewarded, and violations are punished. 6.2.2 Rule use Infrastructure management refers to embedded references to hard- coded rules to technology platforms. It usually focuses on the process of rule execution rather than rule specification (at least with regard to the initial rule). For example, in the case of Ethereum, internal regulations refer to blockchain protocols and consistent algorithms (second layer). From a DAPP perspective, internal rules include decision-making procedures and technical rules embedded in the relevant smart treaties (Tier 3 and Tier 4)-given the potential exogenous nature of the Ethereum protocol. A variety of other exogenous treaties exist, such as TCP / IP and other Internet protocols, making it possible for people to discover and connect with the blockchain-based Internet. To allow these regulations to survive inside the blockchain-based network, we will refer to the management by the infrastructure as the management above the blockchain. These rules are programmed directly onto the blockchain-based network, which guarantees that they will be implemented with secure and decentralized management. Sometimes, the management rules on the blockchain will clearly point out and modify their own procedures: just like we can specify how to specify laws, modify or repeal laws, we can design agreement rules and regulations to define that can be formulated, modified or Procedures for rescinding agreement rules. Take Tezos as an example: a self-modifying blockchain, where people have the ability to modify the rules of the agreement-including the rules that modify the rules! Infrastructure management refers to all forces that exist outside a technology platform, but still affect its own development and operation. These rules operate at the social and institutional level, not at the - 59 -

https://www.attnetwork.org technical level. Endogenous treaties include rules, social norms, customs, and other management structures developed and recognized by a specific community that promotes harmony. 6.2.3 Rule recovery Most blockchain-based decentralized applications are divided into different layers in their management: 1) Internet protocol layer: for example, TCP/IP protocol; 2) Blockchain technology layer: for example, the Ethereum protocol; 3) Decentralized Application (DAPP) Framework: such as DAOstack; 4) DAPP layer: for example, Sapien. Each level implements its own management structure, which may affect or be affected by other levels. These different levels of design and implementation involve multiple individuals, but they come from different communities and may or may not communicate with each other. Collectively, lower-level communities often implement their own management structures and rarely consider the implementation of upper-level management systems. However, in doing this, they ultimately dominate how applications from the upper layers will run. 6.2.4 How the Rule Recovery Method Promotes the Forward Cycle of the Whole Network Developers in the open source community are more than writing rules and procedures to decide to develop and start an open source software project. Peer review often enforces these rules, although communities may also implement formal enforcement and regulatory mechanisms. Failure to comply with these rules may be excluded by community or other forms of social punishment. In a blockchain-based network, we often treat infrastructure management as management outside the blockchain, because management rules exist and are implemented outside the blockchain infrastructure. In contrast to the management rules on the blockchain, - 60 -

https://www.attnetwork.org these rules are not enforced automatically: they need a third party right to enforce and supervise. For most blockchain communities, internal rules include all rules and procedures that are used to decide what changes to implement in the protocol, including decisions for the general public. In Bitcoin, these are done through the Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP)-this is an informal mechanism where people can propose new features and improvements to the Bitcoin protocol. Ethereum implements a similar system that provides people to submit Ethereum improvement plans (EIP). This is an informal procedure where people can suggest and request changes to the Ethereum protocol or code. However, these procedures are not binding. The developer community evaluates these proposals and decides whether (and how) they should be implemented in the code base —and the various issues that may occur. To the extent that these proposals are accepted and implemented in code, infrastructure management has the ability to influence infrastructure management. In other words, because management outside the blockchain is usually to change the rules of a potential blockchain protocol, it has the ability to change the management structure above the blockchain. Exogenous rules are neither derived from the community nor their choice, but they have the ability to influence their activities. 6.2.5 Network-wide minimum limit theory According to Bitcoin's internal rules, the blockchain is immutable: nodes cannot arbitrarily delete or modify content that has been recorded on the blockchain. There is also such a tension between the immutable nature of the blockchain and the forgotten powers of Europe, which gives people the right to ask for the removal and deletion of certain specific information about them, as long as such information is deemed not to be Relevant, outdated, or inappropriate. - 61 -

https://www.attnetwork.org The government or other relevant regulatory agencies impose these external rules to ensure public order and morality. Their goal is to promote specific communities or the public interest—sometimes at the expense of the interests and norms of other communities. - 62 -