Mainframe Whitepaper

Thursday, July 12, 2018
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M Adam Cla ke, Austin C ai , B ad Ha en, Ca l Youn lood, Clément Ja uie , Dio o Pe illo, Lu a Ta azzani, Matt La son, Mi k Ha en, Miloš Mošić, Paul Le Cam, Shane Ho le , PhD Weaknesses in e istin Inte net p oto ols make it impossi le to p o ide o ust net o k se u it . Main ame is an in enti ized and ull de ent alized ommuni ations la e that ena les elia le, se u e pa ket outin , pa ket deli e , pa ket holdin , ile sto a e and data se i es. Its se u it model not onl p o ides en ption, ut also esistan e to enso ship and su eillan e. A detailed des iption o the Main ame plat o m, in enti ization model, token e onomi s, and de elopment oadmap is p o ided. Ke ords​: p oto ols, net o kin , ommuni ations, messa in , tokens, e onomi s, se u it , pto aph , de ent alization, lo k hains, sma t ont a ts

main rame. om Contri utors Adam Cla ke . Austin C ai . B ad Ha en . Ca l Youn lood . Clément Ja uie . Dio o Pe illo Lu a Ta azzani . Matt La son . Mi k Ha en . Miloš Mošić . Paul Le Cam . Shane Ho le , PhD THIS DOCUMENT IS NOT A PROSPECTUS AND IS PROVIDED FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY. Whitepape Ve sion .

M U e i i Sin e its pu li de ut in the mid-nineties, the Internet has ena led unpre edented inno ation and reati it , onne tin all manner o de i es and supportin no el appli ations ar e ond the e pe tations o its in entors. Nearl our illion people use it toda —o er hal o the orld’s population. O e helmin su ess also int odu ed ne hallen es. Multiple thi d pa ties mediate use s’ in o mation, and o ten a en’t ali ned ith the use s’ est inte ests. Go e nment su eillan e and mali ious a ents pose additional th eats. Ea h takes ad anta e o the same de ades-old a hite tu e on hi h the enti e Inte net is uilt. This th eatens p i a i hts and the ell- ein o an one o kin ith alua le in o mation. In the o po ate o ld alone, e ent headlines sho se u it ea hes ause sto k ma kets to plummet, deals to all th ou h, and ompan se ets to leak. The e is little hope o ull se u in these holes usin e istin methods. Ne tools a e eme in to sol e these p o lems mo e e e ti el . Main ame is an unstoppa le ommuni ations plat o m p o idin unpa alleled se u it , in ludin : D ​ ata pri a :​ Full end-to-end and oup en ption S ​ ur eillan e resistan e:​ Node elationships an e hidden C ​ ensorship resistan e:​ Hidden node elationships p e ent ommuni ations jammin

Main ame's ommuni ations in ast u tu e is enti el de ent alized and unhosted. A token e onom in enti izes net o k pe o man e, in ludin : I​ n enti ized pa ket outin I​ n enti ized pa ket sto a e o late et ie al I​ n enti ized ile sto a e I​ n enti ized data se i es Main ame p o ides unp e edented ommuni ations se u it ithout omp omisin on enien e.

In the enesis lo k o the it oin lo k hain, eato Satoshi Nakamoto inse ted this note: The Times 0 /Jan/ 009 Chan ello on ink o se ond ailout o anks The e as no u the e planation o ommenta , ut it is idel elie ed the da ’s headline om The Times o London​ ​ as in luded o t o easons: it se ed to link the i th o Bit oin to a e i ia le histo i al e ent; and it indi ated the ene al limate o dist ust, a use o autho it , and institutional ailu e. A de linin t ust in o e nments, o po ations, and media o ld ide​ ​ an e lea l o se ed du in the pe iod om to . This pe iod itnessed e onomi ollapse and o e nment ailouts, as ell as the A a Sp in mo ement, in hi h millions o itizens o anized th ou h plat o ms like Fa e ook and WhatsApp, demandin mo e om thei o e nments. Thousands e e killed as e imes e e toppled and ount ies ell into i il a . Ea l A a Sp in p otests inspi ed the O up Wall St eet mo ement, hi h as also la el o anized th ou h so ial plat o ms. That mo ement in ol ed pa ti ipants om ount ies and nea l , ities th ou hout .​ ​ It asn’t until the summe o that the e elations o Ed a d Sno den e posed d a net su eillan e on US itizens and the o ld, spannin i tuall all plat o ms and modes o ommuni ation. Ea h o these e ents hi hli hts the impo tan e o ull de ent alized ommuni ations, ithout elian e on thi d pa ties, to p ote t use in o mation. In some ases, the esults a e a matte o li e and death. E en in the o kpla e, ent alized a hite tu e omes at a hu e ost. Re ula do ntime is e pensi e and in on enient, ut pales in ompa ison to mali ious th eats. The e ain data is the ne oil is epeated WIRED,​ Fo tune,​ IBM,​ and othe s. Data the t and leaka e esult in lost alue. Indust ial ​ ​ ​ espiona e is di i ult to uanti , ut Junipe Resea h estimates that the ost o data ea hes ill ea h $ . t illion lo all , ith the a e a e ost pe usiness to e eed $ million .​ ​ A lea e ample is No tel, as one o the o ld’s la est tele oms e uipment manu a tu e s at its peak in , ith nea l , emplo ees and $ illion in e enues. It de la ed ank upt just nine ea s late . No tel’s o n head o se u it and othe s ha e lamed this olossal ailu e on se ial IP the t om state sponso ed Chinese ha ke s.​ ​ Repo ts laim that ha ke s ained di e t a ess to the email a ounts and iles o hi h-le el e e uti es. We o se e simila th eats on a e ula asis. The Yahoo ea h o omp omised all illion Yahoo a ounts and is still the idest ea h in histo .​ Yahoo ​ as a a e o the ea h o ea s e o e pu li l dis losin an thin o e en esettin use s’ pass o ds. The Son Pi tu es ea h o e posed te a tes o email, pass o ds, so ial se u it num e s, inan es, ma ketin plans, ou enti e un eleased Son ilms, and mo e.​ ​ In Ma o , ha ke s ained a ess to the email a ount o John Podesta, ampai n mana e o US p esidential andidate Hilla Clinton.​ ​ The ontents o his email e e pu lished Wikileaks, ont i utin to the most su p isin ele tion upset in US histo .

Most ala min is the a t that ommuni ation and inan ial data a e in easin l ont olled e e o anizations. Onl th ee ompanies, Goo le, Apple and Mi oso t, po e the email lients e ei in o e % o the t illions o emails sent lo all ea h ea .​ ​ In man instan es, these ompanies’ inte ests on li t ith the ell- ein o thei ustome s. Thei idu ia dut to d i e e enues and se e ad e tise s o ten ets in the a . When use s do not pa o thei se i es, the a e not the ustome ; the and thei pe sonal data a e the p odu t. S ott Gallo a o L in illust ates the p o lem: When Fa e ook sou ht app o al o the a uisition o WhatsApp, the assu ed EU e ulato s that it ould e impossi le o the t o entities to sha e data in the sho t te m. This assua ed e ulato s’ on e ns o e p i a , and the a uisition as app o ed. Spoile ale t: Fa e ook i u ed out p ett ast ho data ould jump silos. A te pa in $ B o WhatsApp, the EU ined Fa e ook $ M. This is tantamount to ettin a $ pa kin ti ket o not eedin a mete that osts $ e e minutes. ​ Communi ation is pa t o nea l e e human a ti it . With the a o e mentioned th eats, and so t a e eatin the o ld,​ the unde pinnin s o indi idual and institutional p i a ​ a e th eatened. Alon ith them ould o an meanin ul notion o so e ei nt o autonom . These st u tu al sho t omin s ma th eaten indi idual li es, usinesses, indust ies, e onomies, and the e en nations, ut solutions a e possi le. B om inin ne te hni ues like a ​ d an ed pto aph , dist i uted led e s, and token e onomi s, unse u ed data an e se u ed, and all pa ti ipants anted ull ont ol o e thei o n ommuni ations.

W Despite ein mo e de ent alized than p e ious mass media te hnolo ies, toda 's e se i es a e uilt usin unde l in p oto ols, se i es, and othe tools that a e sus epti le to ent alized ont ol, su eillan e, and manipulation. Full de ent alized appli ations ill e ui e se e al la e s o alte nati e se i es ithout these eaknesses. One o the i st ommon a s that people used hat e entuall ame to e alled the Inte net as to e han e data et een uni e sities and othe o e nment o anizations. Simila l , the Wo ld Wide We as o i inall uilt to sha e s ienti i do uments. These te hnolo ies ha e sin e e ol ed a e ond these o i inal use ases. A te the Inte net as omme ialized in , ne usinesses e an adaptin these p oto ols o thei o n p odu ts and se i es, d i in adoption ut also e omin inte media ies et een onsume s and the unde l in Inte net p oto ols ein used, aptu in alue at hi he la e s. As a esult, the la est e p ope ties toda , su h as Goo le and Fa e ook, a e p ima il in the ad e tisin usiness, and ha e st on in enti es to keep use s in thei o n alled a dens. Ha in lost ont ol o e thei o n data, end-use s a e no lo ked into usin these p op ieta appli ations and se i es. The la k o alan ed in enti es in the p oto ols in eases the likelihood that usinesses ill monetize them in mo e e ploitati e a s. The p oto ols e e also uilt ithout use p i a and data se u it in mind. The e e in ented in an en i onment he e the e as a hi h le el o t ust et een net o k nodes, unlike toda ’s Inte net. One di i ult in unde standin the Inte net’s p esent te hni al limitations is that the e a e a ious eaknesses in multiple net o k la e s, and the e o e ta klin them e ui es a multi- a eted app oa h ased on a deep unde standin o these a ious la e s. A lose look at the Inte net P oto ol Suite,​ ​ the net o kin sta k upon hi h the Inte net is ased, ill help e plain the di i ulties. The ollo in ha t des i es the p oto ol la e s that data must o th ou h to t a e se the Inte net. Ea h la e depends on the se i es and te hnolo ies in the la e elo it.

The Inte net P oto ol Suite In the onte t o the Inte net la e , o e ample, IP add esses a e used to oute pa kets om one destination to anothe . All onne ted ompute s a ess the Inte net th ou h a pu li IP add ess o th ou h a p o ith a pu li IP add ess. The eo aphi lo ation o an IP add ess an usuall e pinpointed ith nei h o hood-le el a u a . Ea h Inte net se i e p o ide ISP is esponsi le o di e ent an es o IP add esses, allo in autho ities to e uest in o mation om them to dis o e the identities o Inte net use s ai l easil . Se e s and/o ontent a e outinel dis onne ted om the Inte net ilin takedo n noti es a ainst thei ISPs. De ent alized net o kin adds i tual a st a tion la e s a o e the Inte net P oto ol Suite

Full de ent alized add essin is a hie ed usin pee -to-pee net o ks that eate a la e o a st a tion a o e hi h the eo aphi al lo ations o nodes an’t easil e dete mined, p e entin them om ein ta eted. Pee -to-pee net o ks eate a i tual net o k o e la that hides the topolo o the unde l in ph si al net o k The a ilit to asso iate memo a le te t ith net o k add esses is anothe essential eatu e o p a ti al Inte net ommuni ations. Domain Name S stem​ ​ DNS is u entl used o this un tion. Domain name e ist ation is mana ed ICANN,​ a non-p o it o anization ​ head ua te ed in Cali o nia that is a ounta le to a ious inte national stakeholde s. Se i es that el on DNS a e su je t to dis uption po e ul indi iduals and o anizations ho appeal to these stakeholde s, o o e nments and o po ations that ont ol in ast u tu e and tampe ith DNS esponses o pu lish alte nati e DNS e o ds. I a ju isdi tion ishes to supp ess Inte net- ased in o mation, it is a elati el t i ial task to use DNS and/o takedo n noti es to make it ina essi le. De ent alized appli ations an a oid these a ie s p o idin a lo k hain- ased alte nati e name esolution p oto ol. Related to DNS is the p o lem o T anspo t La e Se u it ​ ​ TLS and its elian e on the e ti i ate autho it CA s stem. Ce ti i ate autho ities must e t usted to an un a anted de ee, a e ent alized points o ailu e, and a e ta ets o atta k. E en e ent de ent alized in ast u tu e has su e ed om ontinued elian e on this s stem. Ethe Delta, one o the la est de ent alized pto u en e han es, as e ploited a ea h o thei DNS a ount.​ Cont ol o the domain ​ as used as p oo to a CA in o de to ha e them ene ate a

e ti i ate o that domain. Use s etu nin to the site e e then p esented ith a alid HTTPS e ti i ate o the o e t domain, and so e e not p ote ted the se u it he ks in thei o se hen the e e di e ted to a mali ious e se e . Some use s o the site ee epo ted to ha e lost si ni i ant amounts o pto u en in the atta k. Nume ous othe t usted o anizations ha e een su je t to phishin atta ks. In su h atta ks, mali ious a to s ene ate alid e ti i ates that a e si ned t usted e ti i ate autho ities o simila -seemin domains om hi h the se e t ojan sou e ode. That su h a to s su eed in o tainin alid e ti i ates om t usted e ti i ate autho ities demonst ates the la k o se u it in the p esent s stem. Resea h is u entl unde a on de ent alized identit and eputation s stems that an deli e hi he le els o authenti it assu an e than the e ti i ate autho it s stem. M ​ M /M Con entional email o e Simple Mail T ans e P oto ol​ ​ SMTP and Inte net Messa in A ess P oto ol​ ​ IMAP a hie e some de ee o de ent alization in the sense that an one an set up a mail se e and send email. Ho e e , the e e in ented in an e a and at a s ale o Inte net o th in hi h all nodes e e t usted, and had no uilt-in se u it me hanisms. This la k o se u it has allo ed spam to p oli e ate, sin e the ost o sendin unsoli ited messa es is ne li i le. While e tensions, su h as DomainKe s Identi ied Mail​ ​ DKIM , an help to edu e spam, SMTP and IMAP also el on DNS and on entional lient-se e a hite tu e, and a e the e o e not ull de ent alized. The also la k the eal-time esponsi eness that use s ha e ome to e pe t om messa in apps, like Sla k o WhatsApp. Finall , SMTP is not end-to-end en pted de ault, and en ption solutions a e not eas enou h o non-te hni al use s. ​ /XM Inte net Rela Chat​ ​ IRC and EXtensi le Messa in and P esen e P oto ol​ ​ XMPP a e some o the mo e popula i st- ene ation p oto ols o Inte net- ased oup ommuni ations. While these p oto ols allo o ad-ho se e dist i ution, the still el on DNS and on entional lient-se e a hite tu e, and a e not ull de ent alized. E en thou h it is possi le o people to host thei o n email se e s and use PGP​ ​ o en ption, e e people do, el in on hosted email plat o ms like Gmail, iCloud, Outlook, Yahoo Mail and othe s. In addition to ha in all the eaknesses o SMTP, these se i es add dependen e on thi d-pa t in ast u tu e, la k o ont ol o e one's o n data, and the need o an un easona le de ee o t ust in the o anizations p o idin the se i es. On se i es suppo tin ustom domains,

su h as GSuite, the e is an added e ui ement o t ust in the domain mana e s, ho an a hi e and su eil the ommuni ations o all domain use s. While data etention ma ha e some ene its o e tain o po ate use s, it also a ies additional u dens. Companies that etain data ma e o ed to use it a ainst thei o n and thei ustome s' inte ests, as in the in ident hen Apple as asked to unlo k an iPhone o the United States Fede al Bu eau o In esti ation FBI ​ ​. Althou h this pa ti ula e uest as seen some to e in the pu li inte est, it aused on e n o man othe Apple ustome s ho e ame o ied that thei pi a and i il li e ties ould e th eatened i su h inte entions e ame ommonpla e. Apple de ended these inte ests, laimin that a kdoo s in thei p odu ts ould easil e used o mali ious pu poses, and that the FBI e uest onstituted o e nment o e ea h. Othe o e nmental o anizations ha e made simila e uests o se u it a kdoo s in popula messa in apps, like WhatsApp​ and Sk pe.​ Limitin a ess to ustome data minimizes o po ate lia ilit . ​ ​ Man thi d-pa t se i es no p o ide o anizations ith a on enient pla e to ommuni ate ith all thei ollea ues in eal-time, ith i he o mattin , ile sha in apa ilities and telep esen e eatu es. Most nota le amon these is Sla k, hi h oasts o e si million use s.​ ​ While ustome s a e att a ted to thei on enien e and i h eatu e set, thei data is isi le to the se i e p o ide , hom the must t ust to sa e ua d it and keep it up and unnin smoothl . Fo e ample, on Janua , , Sla k had an outa e, dis uptin the o kda s o millions o use s. The outa e e ame the num e one t endin topi on T itte as ustome s took to the so ial net o k to sha e thei ust ation.​ ​ Full -de ent alized messa in eliminates these points o ailu e. - - / Re ent p odu t o e in s om Ke ase, Si nal, and othe s p o ide ull en pted ommuni ations et een indi iduals and e en oups in some ases, ut the el on ent alized in ast u tu e to ope ate o sto e ustome data, thus e posin them to data loss and dis uption o se i e. While these solutions a hie e ette use so e ei nt than some, the still e ui e si ni i ant omp omises, and e pose ustome s to unne essa isks. Some o anizations, su h as Mat i , a e e innin to p o ide enhan ed use so e ei nt allo in use s to host thei ommuni ations on ustome - ented loud in ast u tu e athe than thi d-pa t in ast u tu e. We elie e this is a step in the i ht di e tion, ut onl the e innin . Full de ent alized messa in e ui es unhosted a hite tu e, he e the enti e appli ation in ast u tu e uns on in enti ized pee -to-pee p oto ols.

A Main ame is an unstoppa le ommuni ations plat o m that om ines the desi ed eatu es o toda 's est net o kin p oto ols and appli ations hile also maintainin the hi hest le el o se u it and use so e ei nt . The plat o m onsists o a ious p oto ol and t anspo t la e s in enti ized token e onomies, alon ith so t a e de elopment kits SDKs ena lin eas inte ation ith a a iet o popula lan ua es, ope atin s stems, and de i es, as ell as sma t ont a ts and o a les o token e han e and ease o inte ope a ilit ith a ious popula lo k hains. At its lo est le els, Main ame onsists o a Kademlia- ased​ ​ pee -to-pee net o k used to p opa ate and e e ute lo k hain t ansa tions. This net o k la e a st a ts a a the unde l in eo aphi all -t a ea le Inte net t anspo t la e it elies on, andoml assi nin add esses to ea h pee o node. Moneta alue an e e han ed et een nodes on this net o k usin lo k hain tokens. Main ame p o ides additional p oto ols a o e this t anspo t la e o se u e ommuni ations. Ea h Main ame node e poses a ious p p se i e inte a es o appli ation la e s to all, in ludin inte a es o lo k hain t ansa tions, pa ket outin , pa ket holdin , ile sto a e, and data se i es. Ea h o these p p se i es is p o ided enti el pee s ope atin in in enti ized oope ation ith one anothe , ithout elian e on an mana ed in ast u tu e.

Main ame node Con eptual dia am Main ame p o ides p oto ols o one-to-one and one-to-man en ption. Ea h Main ame node has an as mmet i ke pai asso iated ith it. This ke is used to de pt pa kets intended o this node. When one node ishes to send a pa ket to anothe , it en pts the pa ket usin the pu li ke o the intended e ipient node, o a p e-a an ed sha ed ke . Fo a d se e is ensu ed additional epheme al s mmet i ke s. The e ei in node’s pu li ke is o tained om a p io e han e o onta t in o mation that o u s out-o - and, su h as onsultin a di e to o onta ts, o om a di e t e han e o pu li ke s et een indi iduals. Pa ket en ption is an inte al pa t o Main ame's t anspo t p oto ols and annot e i um ented. Pa kets intended o multiple nodes an e sent in multi ast mode. This allo s the sende and nodes outin multi ast pa kets to send a sin le pa ket instead o dupli ates alon an oute that ill ea h t o o mo e o the intended e ipients. Main ame p o ides p oto ols o sha ed ke ne otiation so that multi ast pa kets an e en pted onl on e o multiple e ipient nodes. This mode o ope ation is intended o hi h-pe o man e appli ations e ui in mode ate se u it , as multiple destination add esses a e e ealed in pa ket metadata. It an also e om ined ith da k outin e plained elo .

A sends a pa ket to B,C,D,E,F nodes WITHOUT multi ast A sends a pa ket to B,C,D,E,F nodes WITH multi ast Multi ast mode allo s identi al in ormation destined or a roup o nodes to e en r pted on e and sent a ross the net ork ithout dupli atin pa kets

Despite thei use o en ption, on entional net o kin s stems still allo mali ious a to s to lean in o mation a out ho is ommuni atin ith hom. Main ame allo s nodes to p e ent this usin on i u a le da k outin ased on Hol ook's o k on the PSS p oto ol​ ​ hi h is itsel an e olution o the Whispe p oto ol, o i inall on ei ed Wood.​ In da k outin mode, pa kets a e outed to ​ ea h node hose add ess mat hes the pa tiall dis losed destination add ess, mo in e i ientl to a ds this su set o nodes, ut a te that the a e dist i uted to all mat hin nodes, makin it int a ta le o an net o k o se e to in e the intended e ipient ithin that zone. Node AC sends a pa ket to BC ith da k outin pa tial add essin . The pa ket ets outed to all nodes ith mat hin add esses, ut an onl e de pted BC. Nodes a e esponsi le o sele tin the app op iate le el o l​ uminosit ​ add ess spe i i it hen add essin pa kets. Too mu h luminosit in eases the possi ilit that mali ious a to s ould identi patte ns o ommuni ation et een nodes, hile too little in eases on estion and t ansmission osts. Main ame p o ides al o ithms o dete minin sensi le luminosit settin s ased on net o k onditions and p i a e ui ements o di e ent use ases.

Be ause pa kets do not need to e ull add essed, session mana ement e omes mo e hallen in . Nodes must ha e anothe means o identi in pa kets the a e inte ested in ie in . This is done usin a p e iousl a eed-upon topi ID inside a pa ket. Main ame p o ides session mana ement p oto ols that help appli ations keep t a k o and initiate sepa ate data st eams. When a ne session is ne otiated et een nodes o oups o nodes, a topi ID is ene ated and sha ed p i atel ith all session pa ti ipants, ho then listen o utu e pa kets ith the same topi ID. E en i nodes sele t a topi ID that is al ead ein used othe nodes, the ill onl e a le to de pt pa kets that ha e een en pted ith a kno n se et ke , and ill i no e othe pa kets ha in the same topi ID, so topi IDs help nodes edu e p o essin o e load o i ele ant pa kets ut a e ull handle ollisions. When multiple, dispa ate ommuni ation st eams use the same topi ID, it also helps to make it mo e di i ult o ould- e ea esd oppe s to e o nize ommuni ation patte ns. Be ause ommuni ation patterns an’t easil e dis erned in this mode o operation, the net ork is hi hl resistant to sur eillan e attempts, as ell as attempts to tar et spe i i nodes or denial o ser i e.​ The om ination o en r ption ith dark routin ena les a trul unpre edented le el o se urit . Main ame ommuni ations make use o , and uild upon, a ene alized model o in enti ized se i e p o ision alled ​swap, swear, and swindle​, as des i ed T ón and Fis he .​ This model is used to in enti ize a ious impo tant se i es p o ided ​ nodes in the net o k. Pee nodes ente into an a eement to p o ide se i es to one anothe ; in this ase, the elia le e eipt and deli e o pa kets. The keep t a k o ho mu h and idth the ’ e sent to and e ei ed om ea h othe usin the SWAP p oto ol S a m A ountin P oto ol o Se i e Wanted and P o ided . Ea h pa ti ipatin node in the SWAP p oto ol uses a he k ook ont a t to mana e the se i e a ountin p o ess, depositin unds into the ont a t in the o m o ERC tokens. Main ame nodes t ansa t in Main ame tokens ti ke s m ol: MFT . Nodes pu lish thei se i es and p i es usin a se i e dis o e p oto ol. B allo in nodes to a ee upon se i es, p i in , and a medium o e han e, the impa tialit and inte ope a ilit o the net o k is imp o ed, and a ide a a o stakeholde s ha e st on e in enti es to pa ti ipate. I potential pee s an a ee upon a epta le se i e p i es, the ente into a pee in elationship.

Main ame’s se i e dis o e p oto ol Used to dete mine ea h node’s se i es and ates Pe iodi all , hen the amount o and idth p o ided a node’s pee e eeds a e tain th eshold, the pee issues an in oi e e uestin additional unds. The node issues a he k to the pee in etu n pto aphi all si nin a pie e o data that an e used as an input to the he k ook ont a t. A node ma ash the he k immediatel , o it ma hold the he k unde the assumption that it ill e entuall o e mone in etu n. I this o u s, it ma simpl oid the he k to pa a k its pee , o it ould issue anothe he k. Ea h node has a on i u a le th eshold o ho lon it ill ait to a umulate he ks e o e it attempts to settle its a ounts. Che ks a e e han ed o - hain. This in eases the isk o de ault, ut allo s the pa ti ipants to a oid e uent ostl t ansa tions. Che ks also ma o ma not e a ked su i ient unds. I a node attempts to ash a he k o tokens and the e a e insu i ient unds in the he k ook ont a t, the node in u s a loss, ut oun ed he ks also dama e the eputation o the sende and ill e entuall p e ent it om pa ti ipatin on the net o k. I a node doesn’t send a he k ithin its pee ’s de la ed deadline o oun es a he k, these a tions a e isi le in the lo k hain led e o all othe nodes to see.

Nodes ma et ie e the edit s o es o othe nodes usin the Main ame edit s o in API, a to in these s o es in ith additional ite ia o thei o n, i desi ed. Nodes ith little o no histo ha e a middlin s o e that in eases as the pa thei ills pun tuall and und thei he ks elia l , o de eases as the ail to pa ills and de ault on pa ments. Ea h node’s se i e dis o e mani est ad e tises the p i es it ha es o di e ent edit s o e th esholds, and a node ma e en hoose to dis onne t alto ethe om a pee ith a edit s o e that is too lo .

In tandem ith the di e t e onomi elationship et een pee s, Main ame in enti izes pa ket deli e a oss multiple pee -to-pee hops in the net o k ith the on ept o pto aphi all e ti ied deli e . This mode o ope ation allo s a sendin node to issue a onditional ond spe i in an es o ondition that some data e o tained om the e ei in node p o in that a pa ket as deli e ed. Pe o man e and elia ilit an e alan ed onl e i in some a tion o pa kets this a . Ali e sends a pa ket to Diane ith a ond o e ti ied deli e . Ea h node olle ts a po tion o the ond, sends anothe one on, And etu ns a e eipt p o in deli e to its pee . Ea h node an sho the e eipt om its nei h o as t​ akeo e p oo ,​ o p oo that the pa ket as su ess ull deli e ed to its nei h o , hallen in that nei h o to sho simila p oo until deli e o the pa ket is on i med. Nodes that annot sho p oo o deli e must eithe p o e that the e ei e as o line and that the a e likel to e nea est nei h o s o the e ei e usin thei Kademlia add esses, o the an e lamed o ailed deli e and o eit staked tokens. This p o ess is alled ​ in e pointin ,​ ​ and essentiall ensu es ua anteed ​ deli e . In da k outin mode, athe than e i in deli e to all mat hin add esses, at ea h hop in the da k oute, a ond is onl sent to a andoml sele ted a tion o the nei h o s, thus maintainin the anon mit o the e ei e hile p o idin a easona le in enti e o ela s to deli e pa kets elia l . Be ause o its p omis uous dupli ation o pa kets, in enti ized deli e in da k outin mode osts mo e. Net o k in e en e allo s sende s to et an estimate o ho mu h pa kets ill ost to send, dependin on thei luminosit settin s and the on i u ation o thei nei h o sele tion al o ithm.

Main ame ommuni ations must ontinue to un tion e en hen some nodes a e dis onne ted om the net o k. Sin e Main ame in ast u tu e is enti el ased on se i es p o ided nodes in its unde l in pee -to-pee net o k, some use ases e ui e that pa kets intended o a node that is o line e held in ese e othe nodes until it oes a k online. This se i e is in enti ized. Nodes ma ad e tise pa ket holdin in thei se i e dis o e mani est. Othe nodes e ui in pa ket holdin e e ute a se i e dis o e ue to ind nodes o e in pa ket holdin o a epta le p i es. On e the ind a epta le pa ket holdin dele ates, the ente into a se i e a eement ith these nodes and use the data se i es inte a e to update thei pa ket holdin dele ate list in the lo al pa ket holde s ta le. At this time, the dele ate also stakes a e tain num e o tokens a ainst the possi ilit that it ma ail to hold pa kets a o din to its a eement. Nodes ma pa dele ates to hold pa kets o them hile the a e o line Nodes ishin to send pa kets to othe nodes must i st he k the lo al pa ket holde s ta le to see i the node the ish to send pa kets to has a dele ate. I this is the ase, the sende must send pa kets to all the e ei e ’s dele ates in addition to the e ei e . The e ei e pe iodi all updates its dele ates ith a si ned list o the pa ket IDs it has e entl e ei ed. Dele ates ma then delete these om thei ueue o held pa kets, ha in nodes o the time the e e held. Nodes that ha e een o line o a hile ma also e uest held pa kets om thei dele ates.

Dele atin a pa ket holde ensu es that pa kets a e held hile nodes a e o line o late et ie al I a dele ate is suspe ted o iolatin its se i e a eement, it an e hallen ed openin a ase ith the s​ indle​ ont a t. The ont a t eha es as a state-ma hine ondu tin a ou t p o eedin ; itnesses a e alled and a uilt /not- uilt e di t is ea hed ased on thei testimon . Dele ates that a e p o en uilt o eit the unds the p e iousl deposited into the s​ ea ​ ont a t. The s indle e di t is e o ded on- hain, and an e used to uanti a node’s t ust o thiness.

Main ame's in enti ized ile sto a e la e makes use o the s​ ea ​ and s​ indle​ sta es o se i e p o ision, in addition to the s ap sta e used in pa ket outin . Nodes attest s ea that the a e sto in andom po tions o a ile hunks stakin tokens on the possi ilit that the mi ht ail a sto a e test. Then the an e ue ied o a pto aphi p oo o sto a e o an pa ti ula hunk pe iodi all . I the a e una le to etu n alid hunks, a s indle p o eedin ma e made a ainst them, ausin them to lose thei staked tokens i p o en uilt . Sto a e nodes a e in enti ized ea nin tokens hen ile hunks a e e uested othe nodes.​ While ile sto a e suppo ts man use ases, it is ine i ient to ha e to load and sa e a la e ile hene e small han es a e made to it. Fo these kinds o use ases, Main ame p o ides in enti ized data ase se i es.

Nodes ishin to ea n tokens o p o idin these se i es ad e tise thei a aila ilit usin the se i e dis o e p oto ol. Othe nodes ma sto e inde ed datasets ith them o su se uent et ie al and ue in . These datasets a e sto ed ith a use -spe i ied le el o edundan . The eate the edundan , the mo e ompensation a node an ea n in the unlikel e ent that its data is lost. Relia le se i e is in enti ized usin s indle itnesses, hose testimon ma esult in the on is ation o p o ide s’ staked tokens i the ail to p o ide e uested data.​ Dataset o ne s an spe i ho is allo ed to ead, ite, update and delete o s om the set. This ine- ained a ess ont ol ena les man use ul appli ation eatu es. Fo e ample, mail o un tionalit ould e implemented allo in an use o , alte nati el , an p e iousl -autho ized use to inse t o s into a dataset ep esentin anothe use ’s mail o , ut onl the mail o o ne ould ead, update o delete o s om the dataset. Use s ith ead p i ile es an su s i e to e ei e noti i ations o an han es to the dataset. E ample appli ation usin Main ame data se i es. Ali e an ite ne messa es to the ta le ep esentin Bo ’s mail o , ut she annot ead o alte the messa es in the mail o . As the mail o o ne , Bo an ead and modi the messa es. The Main ame data se i es la e ensu es that multiple opies o these datasets a e sto ed a oss the net o k o hi h a aila ilit and edundan .

The t o aspe ts that ensu e the esilien e o the Main ame net o k a e that it is oth dist i uted and de ent alized. Dist i uted net o ks a e elati el ommonpla e toda , mostl seen in the o m o CDNs Content Deli e Net o ks , he e the p o ide hi hl -a aila le a ess to online ontent. This t pe o a hite tu e allo s the net o k to seamlessl su i e loss o o atta ks a ainst an su set o the nodes. The dist i uted natu e o the Main ame net o k means as pa ti ipants in the net o k join and lea e, the net o k has the a ilit to o and heal a ound them. As the net o k s ales up, the num e o possi le outin paths et een an t o nodes in eases, dissipatin potential hot-spots and u the diminishin the o e all e e t nodes d oppin out ill ha e on the health o the net o k. The Kademlia net o k p oto ol ill ensu e that nodes t to dis o e ne path a s hen a pee is d opped in o de to maintain an optimal o e la net o k. De ent alized net o ks de inition ha e no ent al autho it that an e e t ont ol o e the lo o data a oss them. This makes them e eedin l di i ult to shut do n a potential ad e sa , as the e is no sin le point o ailu e o atta k su a e. Bitto ent ope ates this t pe o net o k, and hile ou t o de s e e used to shut do n e sites ad e tisin to ent ontent, the unde l in ile-sha in net o k ould not e stopped e e ti el . The Main ame net o k ope ates in a simila mode and is not eliant on an spe i i set o nodes ein p esent o onne ta le at an time. No entit e en Main ame itsel ill e a le to ont ol o dis upt the ope ation o the net o k. In addition to this esilient net o k st u tu e, the a ious se i e la e s p o ided the net o k must e a hite ted in a a that edu es elian e on spe i i nodes as mu h as possi le. Fo this eason, se i es ha e een desi ned ith edundan in mind, sto in indi idual sha ds o data a oss multiple nodes and desi natin multiple nodes to pe o m e uested se i es. The net o k se i e la e s ha e een desi ned to suppo t the de elopment o t ul unhosted, o ull de ent alized appli ations.​ This means that de elope s on ou plat o m a e not e ui ed to p o ision o mana e ​ thei o n in ast u tu e, as ould e e ui ed o a t aditional e se i e, and onsume s do not need to t ust thi d pa ties to maintain su h in ast u tu e. Main ame ill ontinue to de elop se i es to ette meet the needs o ull de ent alized appli ations as this spa e matu es.

Main ame is desi ned to make it eas o an appli ation to make use o ou plat o m o its ommuni ation needs. We ill eate de elope SDKs o o kin ith Main ame ode on all popula plat o ms and lan ua es, in o de o de elope demand. We ill also p o ide o a les and sma t ont a ts o inte a tin ith the token- ased in enti ization la e s on multiple lo k hains, in ludin Ethe eum, NEO, RSK and Tezos. In addition to these SDKs, Main ame ill st i e to a ele ate adoption o usin on de elope s, p o idin detailed tuto ials and do umentation, p o idin and suppo tin o ums he e de elope s a e dis ussin and o kin on Main ame- ased appli ations, and p o idin paid se i es o suppo t and onsultin .

Main ame tokens ha e a ious uses ithin the Main ame e os stem: The in enti ize the timel and e i ient ela o pa kets et een pee s; The in enti ize the deli e o pa kets om sende to e ei e ; The in enti ize elia le de ent alized ile sto a e; The in enti ize elia le de ent alized data se i es; The an e used as a medium o e han e o ma ketpla es on the Main ame plat o m he e di ital oods and se i es an e ou ht and sold.

The Main ame plat o m suppo ts a ide a iet o p odu ts and se i es. The i st appli ation uilt on the plat o m is a messa in appli ation that takes ull ad anta e o the p o ided de ent alized p oto ols. An alpha e sion o this appli ation, alled On , as eleased on De em e 9, 7. On , a messa in app uilt on the Main ame plat o m, p o ides a i st- lass use e pe ien e on all majo mo ile and desktop plat o ms, in ludin Windo s, Ma OS, Linu , iOS and And oid. It is the p odu t o ea s o e pe ien e eatin tools o eal-time o po ate messa in . The app is optimized to make minimal use o s stem esou es. It p o ides oth pee -to-pee and oup hat, t a kin the onte t that ou messa es take pla e in and allo in ou to ui kl na i ate et een all ou on e sations. On is the i st appli ation that allo s the use to take ad anta e o da k outin . Use s an on i u e the luminosit settin s o all messa es sent in oup and p i ate hannels. On allo s t pi al i h o mattin eatu es, as ell as ile atta hments and inline ie e id ets o ima es and ideos. In addition to these t pi al eatu es, On has nume ous mi o o mats o displa in i h inte a ti it e ond simple messa in apps, in ludin polls, task assi nments, oup he klists, and othe s. - On a hes onta t lists and messa e ontent lo all o ast et ie al o a hi ed messa es and ull-te t sea h th ou h messa e ontent and onta t di e to ies. On p o ides de ent alized onta t sto a e, editin , and sha in . Conta t in o mation that a use ishes to make pu li is add essed usin a de ent alized name se i e, su h as ENS,​ and sto ed in Main ame de ent alized sto a e. Conta t in o mation that indi iduals and o anizations ish to sha e p i atel is sha ed usin identit laims o e net o ks like uPo t​ o the So in led e .​ ​

On makes it eas o use s to ale t othe s o thei status oth in thei p o ile and du in on e sations indi atin hethe anothe use as last seen a ti e thei lient and hethe the a e u entl t pin a messa e. These noti i ations an e disa led. On is hi hl e tensi le, allo in use s to eate apps that a e ustom-tailo ed o spe i i indust and indi idual needs and u and sell them usin Main ame tokens. E amples o use ul ots in lude: auto esponde s listenin o ke o ds in hannels and espondin to the oup ith ele ant in o mation; a ents that an e ommanded to pe o m a ious domain-spe i i tasks apps that p o ide othe loud- ased and/o de ent alized se i es to use s and o anizations

The e a e undou tedl nume ous unanti ipated a s that the Main ame plat o m an e used, ut he e a e some a eas o inno ation that e elie e it is ell-suited o . The Gene al Data P ote tion Re ulation GDPR passed the EU in e ui es ente p ise IT p a ti es to ompl ith st i t p i a measu es. G antin IT Admins a plat o m o used on use so e ei nt , o po ations an desi n st eamlined s stems ithout the isk o leakin in o mation in t ansit. Lia ilit is edu ed hen sensiti e data is isolated ithin a se u e s stem. In a simila ashion, Health a e IT p o essionals in the US ould use this plat o m to uild solutions that a e ompliant ith the Health Insu an e Po ta ilit and A ounta ilit A t HIPAA . P o essionals in inan e and a ademia need to ont ol thei o n data o simila easons. Mu h attention has een paid to the Inte net o Thin s, and almost as mu h to the se u it th eat these de i es pose. Ha d a e ith senso s and inputs ut e e di e t use inte a tions an e ome a p ime ta et o ha kin . The Mi ai otnet kno ked out Inte net a ess o mu h o the US East Coast in O to e .​ ​ Main ame’s add essin and outin me hanisms, as ell as its inte ation ith de ent alized identit and eputation la e s, an si ni i antl edu e the atta k e to o onne ted de i es. Pe haps ounte intuiti el , these same tools ma e just as use ul to o e nments. Sensiti e in o mation is an essential pa t o o e nment ope ation, and passin data ithin and et een a en ies is u ial. A en ies ould use the Main ame net o k to edu e the isk o in o mation the t and leaka e, as ell as mal a e in e tions. The Main ame plat o m ould e le e a ed o ommunit uildin , eatin de ent alized s stems like T itte o Reddit. Pa ment s stems a e p oli e atin apidl , ut most eal- o ld onsume appli ations a e still hi hl ent alized and thus su je t to su eillan e and inte e en e. The Main ame plat o m ould po e a a iet o de ent alized, onsume - a in inan e appli ations, su h as WeChat o Venmo, ut independent o an indi idual host o p o ide .

R Main ame has identi ied the ollo in milestones o the ollout o the plat o m and On . M — This i st milestone ill e ui e t ansitional mana ed in ast u tu e e o e all the p oto ols o ull unhosted appli ations e ome a aila le. The mana ed in ast u tu e e ui ed o ea h use o o anization is alled a Main ame node. A Main ame node onsists o a lo k hain node ith a messa in la e and a ious se i es ne essa o sto in messa es and mana in onta ts. The i st suppo ted lo k hain ill e Ethe eum and ill make use o the S a m dist i uted sto a e plat o m and PSS se u e messa in p oto ol o su eillan e- esistant pa ket outin and ile sto a e. Main ame sha es the Ethe eum Foundation’s st ate i ision o S a m, and is de otin si ni i ant en inee in esou es to a ds imp o in it and a ele atin its deli e and adoption. Main ame ill p o ide ma imum use so e ei nt ithin this h id mode o ope ation, o e in oth a mana ed node se i e that an e su s i ed to ith Main ame tokens and a sel -hosted option ith on enient utilities o deplo ment to popula in ast u tu e plat o ms. A eta e sion o On ill e eleased p o idin : elia le di e t and oup messa in se u e ile atta hments ith ie e s o ommon MIME t pes ull-te t sea h o messa es and onta ts

M — This elease ill see the e innin s o in enti ization ith in enti ized pa ket outin , in ludin node se i e dis o e , un tional s ap ont a ts and in oi in . On ill ontinue ith the h id pa tiall mana ed in ast u tu e, addin a sha ed mail o mode o ope ation. In its de ault and most se u e mode o ope ation, ea h Main ame node se i es a sin le use , ensu in that use s' sto ed messa es ne e eside in a sha ed data ase. Ho e e , some ompanies ope ate in indust ies that e ui e data etention and auditin , and a e illin to a ept the ne essa additional t ust in thei use s that is e ui ed su h a mode o ope ation. In s​ ha ed mail o mode​, all lients ithin an o anization sha e the same Main ame node. This node se es as a t anspo t la e o all messa es sent an indi idual in the o anization. Messa es a e en pted an o anization mem e e o e sendin them out o e the Main ame node, hi h en pts them a ain o the t anspo t la e . The same p o ess o u s in e e se hen a Main ame node e ei es messa es o a use in sha ed mail o mode. This ensu es that e en hen unnin in this mode, messa es ontinue to e isi le onl to p i ate ke holde s. When unnin in sha ed mail o mode, ho e e , a eate le el o t ust is e ui ed a te the messa e is de pted. It is then passed on to the mail o se i e to e sa ed in an unen pted o mat so that it an e sea hed and et ie ed all o the use ’s othe lients. Client a ess is still authenti ated and use s an onl a ess thei o n messa es, ut the messa es a e sto ed in a sha ed data ase. This data ase an e audited and e ie ed administ ato s ith the o e t pe missions. Sha ed mail o mode

Additional On eatu es ill e implemented, in ludin : O anization- ide onta t mana ement Th eads Rea tions Emojis Reminde s Task sha in P esen e M — This milestone ill e the ulmination o ou e o ts to uild a ull -de ent alized ommuni ations plat o m. It ill suppo t ull in enti ization o all p oto ol la e s, in ludin pa ket outin , deli e , hodlin , ile sto a e, and data se i es, thus ena lin On to un in ull unhosted mode. Ri he identit and use edit atin APIs ill e ome a aila le, makin it easie o nodes to a oid de ault isk. This elease ill also in lude the laun h o ou de elope SDK, ena lin indi iduals, sta tups and othe o anizations to de elop appli ations on the Main ame plat o m. We ill also elease a ull -de ent alized, use - u ated ma ketpla e o the p odu ts and se i es that de elope s uild, allo in e e one to pa ti ipate in this ne token e onom . Finall , this elease ill in lude sma t ont a ts, o a les, and li a ies o inte a tin ith the in enti ization la e s om othe lo k hains and de elopment pa adi ms. The in o mation in this do ument is p elimina and is su je t to e ision, and ma not e up-to-date. All o a d-lookin statements in ludin ut not limited to milestones and de elopment oals in this do ument a e su je t to han e, and Main ame makes no o li ation to update o e ise them to e le t e ents o i umstan es a te the date itten o to e le t the o u en e o unanti ipated e ents. Fo e asts in pa ti ula o e asts a out so t a e de elopment o the e olution o net o k eha io a e inhe entl su je t to un e tainties and to a ide a iet o te hni al, usiness, e onomi and ompetiti e isks, and the assumptions unde l in these o e asts ma e ina u ate. The e o e the esults ene all in ludin ithout limitation, the te hni al spe i i ations, de elopment oals, and milestones a hie ed ma a mate iall om hat is des i ed in this do ument. We annot ua antee that an o a d lookin statements, a ktests, o e pe iments made us o e pe ted esults o ope ation o the Main ame plat o m ill o elate ith the a tual utu e a ts o esults. This do ument does not onstitute an o e to sell, an in itation to indu e an o e , o a soli itation o an o e to a ui e se u ities.

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