Modum Whitepaper

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Whitepaper DATA INTEGRITY FOR SUPPLY CHAIN OPERATIONS, POWERED BY BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY sensor devices record environmental conditions while physical products are in transit. When a change in ownership occurs, the collected data is checked against a specific smart con- tract in the blockchain. This contract validates that the transaction meets all of the standards set out by the sender, their clients, or the regulator and triggers various actions: notifications to sender and receiver, release of goods, payment, etc. www. Technoparkstrasse 1 Copyright 2017 AG CH - 8005 Zurich Whitepaper V. 1.0 [email protected]

Contents Blockchain for supply chains 3 Strategy: Pharma first 3 Strategy: Blockchain agnosticism 3 Regulatory driven first application 4 EU GDP regulation recently changed 4 An efficient solution to meet regulations 5 How it works 6 USPs of the modum system 6 Technical details of the modum system 7 First series 7 Shipment process 8 modum temperature loggers 9 Security concept 9 Compliance-as-service business model 10 For the last mile 10 Only the beginning for 10 Experienced team 11 Token Sale 12 Token economics 12 Milestones 13 Voting principle and profit share process 14 Early investor incentives 14 Bug Bounty Program 15 Buying procedure 15 Minting of MOD tokens 15 Market segmentation and go to market 16 Producer to wholesaler 16 Wholesaler distribution 16 Mail-order pharmacies 16 From pilots to market entry 17 Pilot 1.0 17 Pilot 2.0 17 Paid Pilot 3.0 with 3PL and mail-order pharmacy 18 Business and pricing strategy based on pilots 19 Current status and go-to-market strategy 19 www. Technoparkstrasse 1 2 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected]

Blockchain for supply chain “Blockchain for supply chains” has become a prominent, and very promis- ing application scenario for blockchains, enabling transparency between untrusted partners and traceability throughout production processes. The advantage of using blockchain technology in the supply chain is that it provides an open, immutable, global, online ledger for transactions, which includes a verification mechanism. Recently, various start-ups (Chronicled, Everledger, Skuchain, Blockverify, ubirch, Provenance etc.) and large corporate players (IBM, Microsoft, Walmart, Maersk, BHP Billiton, etc.) have begun to run proof-of-concept studies, committing significant R&D resources to building new platforms and fostering international collaborations. In mid 2016, when began operations, only a few working block- Strategy: Pharma first chain infrastructures were available. opted to use blockchains with proven industry applications. This decision allows the modum team to focus on the development of the business case and to be able to stay relatively neutral or “agnostic” with respect to the growing portfolio of blockchain solutions. chose the pharma industry as its first business case because this sector requires highly automated and cost-effective logistics solu- tions, which guarantee data integrity. The pharma industry has one of the highest standards for product safety, security, and stability, it is the ideal candidate to act as a “blockchain-enabler”. After modum has successfully proven a viable blockchain solution within pharma the highest require- ments, scaling into other verticals is feasible. The general maturity of the Ethereum network and development stage Strategy: Blockchain of Solidity validated’s choice to use Ethereum for its pilots or proof-of-concepts. While Ethereum remains one of the most cutting-edge agnosticism blockchains with great developer and commercial interest, will stay open to other options for blockchain use in this rapidly changing market. In particular, requirements from our clients for permissioned blockchains or systems with low or no transaction fees call for substantial flexibil- ity and resources from in order to truly become and remain blockchain agnostic. From a risk-perspective, social and technical uncer- tainties of blockchain infrastructures (governance, scalability, interoper- ability), make blockchain agnosticism an essential foundation of modum’s business strategy in order to be able to provide the best infrastructure to every customer. www. Technoparkstrasse 1 3 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected]

Regulatory driven first application EU GDP regulation recently changed The first product of offers an efficient system to comply with recently tightened regulatory requirements for the transport of medicinal products for human use in the European Union. Chapter nine of the Good Distribution Practice regulation (GDP 2013/C 343/01) now requires proof that shipped medicinal products have not been exposed to conditions (particularly temperature) that may have compromised their quality.1 National regulatory bodies enforce GDP regulations on the over 10,000 wholesale distribution authorization holders in the EU to ensure drug safety, whereby the consequence of non-compliance can lead to licenses being revoked.2 It is likely that regulation in the United States (draft chap- ter 1083: “Good Distribution Practice”) will follow in a similar direction.3 To date, pharmaceutical companies meet requirements via expensive, temperature-stabilized trucks and containers from third-party logistics providers (3PLs). For the majority of medicines (which are not tempera- ture sensitive) this is excessive from a cost and regulatory perspective. Figure 1: GDP 2013/C 343/01) Regulation. 1. 2. estimate based on the list of WDA holders in Germany: 3. www. Technoparkstrasse 1 4 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected]

An efficient solution to meet regulations offers a more efficient supply chain solution, which enables companies to prove compliance with GDP regulations using blockchain and Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology. The modum solution allows sig- nificant cost savings for the distribution of medicinal products that do not require active cooling. The modum solution is: 1. Designed for pharma standards with a calibrated tempera- ture sensor. 2. Automated to a high degree and fully wireless. 3. Easily integrated with existing customer systems, capable of being rolled out painlessly, with no gateways. 4. Able to provide a high level of data integrity, authenticity, independent verification, auditability, security, and flexible data ownership. 5. A low-cost solution that allows mass use. www. Technoparkstrasse 1 5 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected]

How it works USPs of the modum system Figure 2: Components of the modum system: dashboard, temperature loggers, and mobile application has developed a system with the above design focus, leading to the following features and USPs: Before shipment occurs, the temperature logger ID, shipment ID, and alarm criteria are fixed within a shipment-specific smart contract. Upon receipt, this smart contract will allow receivers to check that regulations have been met. The evaluation criteria (in this case temperature ranges), cannot be changed retroactively. During the shipment, the temperature is monitored, whereby the data is stored in the internal flash memory of the logger. Using BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) the shipment does not need to be opened in order to perform the checks. At each change of owner- ship, data authenticity is certified by the smart contract. The results of the evaluation are immutably stored in a blockchain as a proof-of-existence. Depending on the outcome, the receiver and sender are notified immedi- ately, allowing them to release the product or arrange further corrective and preventative actions. Customers do not need to install additional hardware to use the system, downloading a mobile application is suffi- cient. For the customer, the modum system provides: 1. A passive solution that includes a monitoring service with no special packaging required, without the need for expensive, active-temperature controlled logistic services. 2. The proof required by GDP regulations that medical products have not been compromised on shipment level. www. Technoparkstrasse 1 6 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected]

Technical details of the modum system First series The following describes the state and components of the first series of the modum system planned for production in Q4/2017. The modum system is designed with a clear design focus on automation and security. It consists of multiple hardware and software components. • A pharma-qualified temperature logger, which monitors the tempera- ture during the transport. It communicates wirelessly to a mobile application via BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy), alternatively, via NFC (Near Field Communication). • The dashboard serves for preparation (e.g. setting alarm criteria) and tracking of shipments, data visualization and analytics, and can be used to perform statistical calculations on historical data, e.g. com- pare different shipments, with export functionality. • The mobile application can be used to pair the temperature log- gers with the respective shipments, initialize shipments and visualize the recorded data. • The front end (dashboard, temperature logger and mobile applica- tion) communicate with back-end’s HTTPS server via RestAPI/JSON. • The back end is for data retrieval, evaluation, verification and storage. It also runs an Ethereum full node executing the respective smart contract code. BACK END FRONT END SERVER Rest API, PostgreSQL HTTPS JSON Dashboard DB Instance Server JSON RPC Near Field Communication Bluetooth Ethereum Low Energy Ethereum Smart Network Mobile Temperature Node Contract Application Logger Figure 3: Front end and back end of the modum system www. Technoparkstrasse 1 7 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected]

Users will first set the temperature ranges (alarm criteria), measurement Shipment process intervals etc. using the dashboard. During the packing process, the opera- tor scans the shipment information (e.g. tracking number), receives the serial number of the temperature logger and places it in the correspond- ing package. This process can be accelerated in an industrial setting, using NFC. In the back-end, a shipment-specific smart contract (already contain- ing specific shipment parameters such as temperature range) is called. The temperature measurement starts either immediately or after a pre- defined time. During transport, the logger can be queried for shipment, current, and recent temperature data. Upon receipt, BLE can be used to retrieve the shipment data, even without opening the package. Compliance is checked in multiple stages and on multiple levels: 1. The logger itself signals occurrences of deviations to the operator via its three LEDs. 2. The smartphone application displays data and deviations submitted by the logger in a graphical way, even when the phone is not connected to the internet. 3. Through the back-end the data is validated for authenticity and compliance by the shipment-specific smart contract, without the possibility of any party to interfere - whereby all information re- quired for validation is publically accessible. For all outcomes, the smart contract stores the measurement hash, a yes/ no outcome with respect to the pre-set temperature range and a pointer to the actual measurement data (e.g. the PostgreSQL or a customer data- base) in the blockchain as proof-of-existence. If a deviation has occurred, the sender is notified and can review the corresponding measurement and shipment data. Figure 4: Shipment process of the modum system www. Technoparkstrasse 1 8 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected]

modum temperature loggers The specifications of the modum temperature logger (first series) can be found below: Device Type temperature logger TAG1 External Dimensions (LxWxH) 100 mm x 40 mm x 10 mm External Display 3 LEDS: Active/Measuring/Warning Weight 60 g Warehouse Conditions (stand-by mode) 0 °C to +30 °C Operating Temperature Range -10 °C to +70 °C, arbitrary temperature ranges, alerts Measurement Interval 1 second to 1 week (pre-defined), start after time delay Temperature Accuracy (calibrated) ±0.45 °C between -40 °C to +70 °C Temperature calibration valid for 1.5 years Accelerometer Range: ±2g – 16g, free fall and motion detection Memory (RAM) 30 KB Storage for Measuring Points 50,000 measurements Protection Class IP65 Battery Life 6 weeks (active), 1 year (passive, on-shelf) Reactivation Possible Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Bluetooth 5 w/ secure connections Bluetooth Features BLE API on BLE GATT layer updating firmware NFC (Near Field Communication) For fast initialization / pairing (automation) Certifications CE, Temperature calibration, GMP, GAMP5 Specifica(ons  subject  to  change   Table 1: Technical specifications of the modum temperature logger Figure 5: Rendering of the upcoming series of modum temperature loggers The modum temperature loggers must mitigate various risk and attack scenar- Security concept ios.4 With potentially thousands of loggers in circulation there is a credible risk that the hardware is subjected to physical disassembly, tampering, or manipu- lation of its firmware and flash memory. The housing itself is tamper-resistant and water-proof. All components with a serial number (e.g. temperature sensor, System-on-a-Chip) are registered in the authorized device database to identify forged, tampered-with, and stolen loggers. The cryptographic co-processor shields its secret keys (it uses to create digital signatures of all measurements, timestamps, etc.) from decapping, probing, and fault attacks. The corresponding public key of every logger is used by the system to guarantee end-to-end data authenticity. Smart contracts used in the modum system are open source and can be verified by anyone.5 Furthermore, the modum system provides customers with multiple levels of ac- cess control and permits only authorized users of sender- and receiver company to interact with the temperature loggers. 4. See the upcoming security whitepaper at 5. www. Technoparkstrasse 1 9 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected]

Compliance-as-service business model For the last mile During’s extensive proof-of-concept phase, pilot projects with several customers have determined that the modum solution delivered its highest value as a last-mile logistics service in the pharma supply chain. As such, will offer its solution in a “pay-per-shipment” model. The last mile of the pharma supply chain begins when finished products leave the pharmaceutical production facility and ends when they arrive at the pharmacy or hospital to be administered to the patient. Between producer and pharmacy, the products typically move through a pharma- ceutical wholesaler.6 In the EU, around 200 million of these shipments occur each year.7 Only the beginning for Our goal is to utilize the potential of a blockchain-based back-end for supply chains. Most logistics companies have small margins and high competition and therefore little possibilities to innovate if it does not save costs – therefore we focus on providing significant cost reductions for our customers in the pharma supply chain. Once the blockchain is a proven, cost-saving part of a logistics supply chain, additional use cases will be possible with almost no incremental costs for our customers. Besides the obvious ones as trade finance, trade documents and determination of legal handover, we are able to deliver unique products by adding additional environmental sensors to our hard- ware. For example, motion sensors to detect whether fragile goods were handled correctly, light detectors to immutably prove whether a parcel Figure 6: The modum system overview 6. ‘Nearly three-quarters of all medicinal […] are distributed through pharmaceutical full-line wholesalers.’ 7. ‘Number of minimum daily Wholesaler deliveries to Pharmacies across the EU27’ multiplied by ‘Number of retail and hospital pharmacies and dispensing doctors’ multiplied by working days. www. Technoparkstrasse 1 CH - 8005 Zurich 10 [email protected]

was opened during its journey, and secure such an event with insurance policies. Furthermore, humidity sensors to monitor the condition of raw materials like salts for the pharmaceutical sector or hay for the transport of specialized horse food. Those are just some of the use cases which were already discussed with pilot and potential customers. Certainly, many more use cases, which have not been considered will follow. By extrapolating some of the novel technologies described in this white- paper we expect that Smart Logistics (or Supply Chain 4.0), will yield a role reversal between the “object to be transported” and “carrier”: A “self- dependent shipment” could manage itself, i.e. autonomously optimize for revenue, directly pay its fees to different service providers and cost centers. The modum team believes that technology is the answer to the world’s Experienced team most urgent problems. Our highly capable team combines a breadth of competency and experience to serve our clientele and deliver a high- quality solution. • Malik El Bay, has experience in building products in the fast-paced startup environment. With two start-ups under his belt, he leads the team and strategic growth of • Dr. Stefan Weber, a physicist with industry and start-up experience. He manages hardware development and compliance. • Sacha Uhlmann has a background in peer-to-peer systems and quality assurance. He leads the system development and is the lead architect of modum. • Simon Dössegger will join modum in fall 2017. With a robotics engi- neering background, Simon has led other startups as CEO. He success- fully exited the his first startup, creating intelligent sensing solutions for drones now with GoPro. • Andreas Knecht, is a lead engineer and IoT guru. He is responsible for the hardware and firmware development. • Marc Heimgartner, Tim Strasser, Guilherme Sperb Machado, Moritz Schneider and Sebastian Stephan are the core developers of the modum system. • Michael Taylor and Ozan Polat spearhead the marketing and communications team. They bring marketing experience from major tech and innovative startup environments. • Dr. Thomas Bocek is the resident blockchain expert, with a PhD in decentralized and peer-to-peer systems. • Marc Degen, a blockchain investor, guides the team with deep digitalization knowledge. • Werner Spörri, chairman and former investment banker, contributes valuable financial and legal direction. www. Technoparkstrasse 1 11 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected]

• Pascal Degen, currently engaged as Head of Sterile Packaging at Novar- tis, brings in-depth manufacturing knowledge from within the pharma sector. • Michel Schaer, founded a Swiss-based pharmaceutical distributor and provides insight regarding pharma wholesale and distribution. Additionally, the team regularly consults with our advisors: • Prof. Dr. Burkhard Stiller (Communications Chair, University of Zurich) whose main research interests are in blockchain, IP-based networks, cloud and grid services, and the economics of IP services. • Prof. Dr. Erik Hofmann (Director of the Chair of Logistics Management, University of St. Gallen) who wrote the book Supply Chain Finance and Blockchain Technology. • MLaw Benedikt Schuppli, RA, is a legal counsel who works with the Swiss Fintech company Lykke Corp, which is building a global market- place based on blockchain technology. • Dr. Ing. Heinrich Zetlmayer (Member of the Board, Lykke Corp) is a Board Member at Lykke Corp and advises on the business aspects of the token sale, being a former IBM top executive in charge of big-scale sup- ply chain implementation programs. Furthermore, we are working together with external experts, specialists in embedded systems and GDP-compliant transport validation implementa- tions. Token Sale is a company with a real product, commercial traction, and with major partnerships. Its token sale has been carefully crafted to relate to the reliability of our service offering. The primary goal of the token sale is to establish mechanisms for to efficiently execute its vision: ‘to improve supply chain operations with emerging technology’ and to align the interest of token holders with the interests of the team. There- fore Lykke Corp. was chosen to advise on the token sale and all related activities. The modum token (MOD) is a profit share token with voting and profit Token Economics participation rights. The maximum total supply is 30 million tokens. 20.1 million are offered in the token sale, 0.9 are used to cover the token sale costs and for the Bug Bounty Program, and 9 million MOD are reserved for, to be vested based on major milestones. Token holders will vote to decide if the milestones are met and release the locked tokens. Locked tokens do not have profit share nor voting rights. Ethereum ERC20 technology was used to build the MOD token. The code of the smart con- tract and the token sale web application are open source8 and have been reviewed by Lykke Corp and Consecom (a Swiss IT Security consultancy). 8. visit: www. Technoparkstrasse 1 12 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected]

30% 60% - Token Sale 3% - Token Sale Costs & Bug Bounty 30% - 7% - Pre-Sale 60% 3% 7% Figure 7: Token economics breakdown The funds collected in the token sale are used to meet predefined Milestones milestones in our product roadmap as elaborated below. The mentioned dates are “earliest dates possible” and no voting will take place before the dates mentioned. The milestones provide today’s view of the market needs. Due to the fast-evolving nature of the blockchain ecosystem those milestones are indicative, i.e. if a milestone needs to be changed, prior acceptance of the change is required, therefore an additional voting is conducted. In case of a negative voting, can reinitiate the voting process earliest 90 days after the end of a prior voting period. No milestones can be skipped by We commit to these milestones regardless of the outcome of the token sales and total funds collected. Milestone 1 – expected earliest October 22nd, 2017: The objective is to ensure a proper minting and token distribution process to release upon positive voting 900,000 tokens (3% of the maximum MOD supply) to a wallet controlled by The distribution is conducted using the first in first out principle. All contributions are consolidated into one list. The timestamp per block is used to define the conversion rate to USD, which is then used to define the conversion rate to MOD tokens. One contribution might be in multiple bonus tiers. This process is supervised by our advisor Lykke Corp. The released tokens are used for our advisors, many helping hands in the making of this tokensale and the bug bounty program. Milestone 2 – expected earliest Q1/2018: Objective is to ensure the go-to-market of our first product line including the mass production of our dedicated sensor device and the product eco- system (application, validation & qualification). At least two environmen- tal sensors are integrated into the hardware platform (temperature and motion) and besides Ethereum at least one of the following blockchains: IOTA, NEO, Fabric, ETC or Rootstock, is supported as blockchain back-end. 3 million tokens are upon positive voting released to a wallet controlled by Milestone 3 – expected earliest Q1/2019: Objective is to deliver the next sensor generation with real-time interac- tion (via current or emerging network technologies, like LoRaWAN). At www. Technoparkstrasse 1 13 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected]

least one additional environmental sensor is integrated (light or humidity) and any two additional blockchain back-ends of the following: IOTA, NEO, Fabric, ETC, Rootstock, Waves, Tezos, EOS or Cosmos, are supported. 3 million tokens are upon positive voting released to a wallet controlled by Milestone 4 – expected earliest Q1/2020: Objective is to deliver the next sensor generation with a real-time, on-chip blockchain node. An additional environmental sensors (e.g. light or hu- midity) is integrated and the complete modum software is delivered in a fully decentralized architecture. 3 million tokens are upon positive voting released to a wallet controlled by Figure 8: Roadmap and first milestones With the publishing of the annual report, can claim whether or Voting & profit sharing not the present milestone was achieved. With the publishing of the report the start date of the voting period is set. The voting period lasts for two weeks. Every MOD token in circulation has one vote. Locked tokens can- not vote. The default vote is void. The quorum is defined by the number of executed votes within the predefined timeline. If a vote is currently ongoing and tokens are being transferred during the voting period then voting rights of the recipient account remain zero. All voting rights remain with sender account despite having less or not having any modum tokens anymore. A simple majority is needed to decide if the milestone was met. If the milestone was met, the defined number of tokens are released to the wallet. The board of decides and declares the amount of dividends when there is a profit. A payment equivalent to this amount is converted to Ether and sent to the modum smart contract. The modum smart contract evaluates the current holdings and distributes the profits to the token holders in Ether. The voting and profit share smart contract is open source The token pre-sale will be conducted by invitation only. The pre-sale starts Early investor incentives in August and comes with a 50% discount on the price of 1 USD per MOD token. The number of tokens sold at 50% discount is hard capped at 2.1 million tokens. The public token sale starts on 1 September. The first 6 million MOD tokens are sold with a discount of 30% on the price of 1 USD per MOD token. The following 6 million are sold with a discount of 15%. The last 6 million are not discounted and sold for 1 USD per MOD token. Oversub- scriptions of a bonus tier get allocated to the following tier. The estimated current bonus tier is visible on the token website. The displayed amount may change due to changing exchange rates and is therefore indicative. Final bonus tier and token allocation is done post transaction. Oversub- scriptions of the whole token sale are returned to the investors after the closing of the token sales. (Refund addresses are requested in the token sale web app) www. Technoparkstrasse 1 14 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected] is deeply engaged with the developer community and has Bug Bounty Program maintained a ‘code is law’ value system while developing its platform. With every major platform release will open a new phase of its “Bug Bounty Program”. Every developer that submits a bug will receive a certain number of points based on the severity of the bug. The severity is calculated according to the OWASP risk rating model based on impact and likelihood. In the first phase the smart contract of our token sale will be the first item to be checked by the community under the Bug Bounty Program. 3% of the total tokens issued will be held for the bounty program, with 25,000 tokens available for participants who find bugs in the token sale smart contract. OVERALL RISK SEVERITY High Medium High High IMPACT Medium Low Medium Medium Low Note Low Low Low Medium High LIKELIHOOD To buy MOD tokens, please register on with your email Buying procedure and confirm the Terms of Token Sale. By confirming the Terms you are indicating, among other things, that you are not a resident of a country whose laws and regulations conflict with the purchase of MOD token and/ or the participation in the token sale. You will be asked confirm that you are not a resident of the United States or Singapore or resident of a coun- try where American embargoes and sanctions are in force, namely Iran, North Korea, Syria, Sudan, or Cuba. For further details please consult the Terms of Token Sale. After the confirmation of your email address, you will either create your a new wallet, upload a UTC/JSON Keystore, or enter the receiving address manually. In the next step the payback addresses for possible oversubscription payments can be added. In the last step, a personal BTC, ETH, and IOTA address is generated to deposit your invest- ment. An email is sent upon successful confirmation of your payment. The conversion rate to USD is determined at the time of confirmation by official BTC/USD, ETH/USD, and IOTA/USD exchange rates, which are pro- vided by our advisor Lykke. The conversion to modum tokens is done post token sale. Therefore the exact number of tokens distributed per investor is communicated at the time of distribution of the modum token. The MOD tokens are distributed latest 30 days after the token sale is Minting of MOD tokens closed. The code for the creation of the tokens is open source9. The proper distribution is also the first milestone to be met. All investments are allocated by their confirmation time to the respective bonus tiers. Oversubscriptions of a bonus tier get allocated to the next following tier. At every time, the estimated current bonus tier is visible on the token website. Oversubscriptions of the whole token sale are returned to the in- vestors. Upon sign-off of the distribution, every investor receives an email with their binding number of modum tokens they receive and the date and time of distribution to their token sale wallet. For more informtion on regulatory and legal aspects, see the Token Terms of Sale Document. 9. visit: www. Technoparkstrasse 1 15 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected]

Market segmentation & go to market Last mile logistics are typically separated into two stages: From producer to wholesaler and from wholesaler to doctors, hospitals and pharmacies. However, mail-order pharmacies now open up a third stage skipping the pharmacy and are directly delivering to the patient. Approximately 10% of the 200 million annual shipments occur between Producer to wholesaler pharma producers and wholesalers. These deliveries primarily consist of palettes containing finished products. The bulk of’s potential customers are small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) pharma produc- ers, with an average annual volume of 1,000 to 10,000 shipments. 90% of the total shipping volume is conducted from a wholesaler to hospi- Wholesaler distribution tals, doctors, and pharmacies. Wholesalers usually have their own fleet of vehicles and outsource up to half of the shipments to third-party logistics service providers. There are about 750 wholesalers in the EU serving in total more than 180,000 pharmacies and dispensing doctors.10 Mail-order pharmacies are a special case in last-mile logistics – they deliver Mail-order pharmacies medicines directly to the end consumer, adding up to 20 million shipments per year within the EU. Their segment is growing quickly, currently 2% of total market revenues11 (the average e-commerce revenue proportion across industries is approximately 8% and growing).12 The leading mail-or- der pharmacy in Europe, DocMorris, has 2.5 million clients and an annual turnover exceeding CHF 350 million.13 Figure 9: Distribution of medical products overview: Of the 200 million pharmaceutical shipments occuring in the EU each year, 10% occur between producer and distributor and 90% occur between distributor and dispenser. Indicating that the bulk of shipments exist in the last mile between distributor and Pharmacies/Hospitals/Doctors. 10. 11. 12. 13. www. Technoparkstrasse 1 16 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected]

Mail-order pharmacies must comply with GDP regulations too: “It is in the responsibility of the sending pharmacy to demonstrate that the medicines have not been exposed to conditions that may compromise their quality”. More explicitly, the “sender must check the transport conditions for suit- ability in each case. Compliance, especially temperature, needs to be veri- fied and documented regularly.”14 From pilots to market entry Since its founding in 2016, has conducted several pilots in each of the last-mile segments in order to receive customer- and user input for developing the system, test different go-to-market strategies, and explore business and pricing models. For the pilots, used an off-the-shelf temperature logging device, the TI sensor tag, and developed its own custom firmware to interface with the modum system.15 The first pilot was conducted in Switzerland in 2016, monitoring shipments Pilot 1.0 from a SME pharma producer to a wholesaler. Over six weeks, several temperature loggers recorded 10,000 data points and were able to successfully track the temperature of most shipments. The collected feedback indicated necessary improvements in the following areas: 1. Connectivity of the temperature logger with the mobile applica tion should be quicker. 2. Data transfer speed should be improved. 3. A dashboard for data analysis should be created. The main advantages for SME pharma producers to use the modum sys- tem is the wider choice to find a suitable logistic partner and ensure com- pliance on a shipment level. Figure 10: Pilot 1 14. 15. www. Technoparkstrasse 1 17 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected]

In its second pilot, monitored shipments between a wholesaler Pilot 2.0 and several clinics and pharmacies whereby shipment volumes were scaled up by one order of magnitude. For this pilot, the temperature logger’s connectivity and data transfer speed were improved and a dashboard for quality assurance and custom- er service departments of the wholesalers was introduced and tested. To improve the the responsiveness of the read-out process of temperature data was an important learning from pilot 2.0. Additionally, monitored a cross-border shipment to validate the technology internationally and between continents. A key takeaway from earlier pilots and the market studies was that a di- Paid Pilot 3.0 with 3PL & rect integration in the processes of a third-party logistics provider already serving high shipping volumes would greatly help scale be- mail-order pharmacy cause pick-up and hand-over would be handled by the same company. By using a third-party logistics provider, the shipment process remains the same for the sender: insert the loggers into the respective shipment and transfer the shipment to the 3PL provider. Prior to delivery to the pharmacy or hospital, the 3PL driver will use their proprietary scanning device to check compliance. He can then either release the shipment to the owner, or take corrective and preventive actions in case of any devia- tions. Figure 11: Pilot 2 www. Technoparkstrasse 1 18 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected]

During the third, paid pilot with the parcel-service market leader in Switzerland, aimed to prove the suitability for mass use of the modum system. Two phases were conducted: in the first phase, modum implemented and stabilized customer processes; in the second phase, quantified additional efforts and the duration of the tempera- ture data read-out process. The customer’s objective for this pilot was to achieve 95% of all readouts within 30 seconds. managed an average readout of only eight seconds for 100% of the shipments. In the pilot wrap-up meeting, suitability of the modum system for mass use was confirmed and the client recommended integration of the modum system into the offering of the 3PL. By using the modum system, depending on market segment and volume, Business & Pricing Strategy costs per shipment can be reduced by up to 60%. With respect to the 200 million shipments of pharmaceutical products in the EU, a widespread adoption of the modum system or competing services has the potential to reduce industry-wide expenses by approximately 3 billion USD. The solution is offered in an easy “pay-per-shipment” model. It has been shown in the market studies and pilots that customers would pay up to 10 USD per shipment. When compared with the use of environ- mentally-controlled transport solutions, the modum system still signifi- cantly reduces overall shipping costs plus further cost reductions if the potential for automation, that comes with the modum system, is taken into account. Currently, the modum system is being integrated into the system of the Current status leading last-mile logistics service provider in Switzerland. is planning to finalize this integration in Q4/2017, using the first series of proprietary temperature loggers. Clients from the wholesaler and mail-or- der pharmacy segment are lined up. Upon successful completion, official market entry in Switzerland will begin in Q1/2018. Once integration has been established within our first client site, the logistics service provider can approach the SME pharma segment to offer the additional service. Furthermore, is in contact with significant customers from within the pharma distribution vertical in the UK, France, Germany, Turkey, and Vietnam. www. Technoparkstrasse 1 19 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected]

www. Technoparkstrasse 1 20 CH - 8005 Zurich [email protected]