Cryptaur Whitepaper

Saturday, June 16, 2018
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сryptaur smartbook Bye-Bye, Mr. Middleman Draft V0.8 Legal disclaimer: Please note this is a beta version of the Cryptaur Smartbook, still undergoing final validation before official re- lease. The paper, and all content found on it are provided on an “as is” and “as available” basis, as preview release for its selected readers. Beta software is not fully tested and may include significant issues. Cryptaur does not give any warranties, whether express or implied, as to the suitability or usability of its software or any of its content.

TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT 1 INTRODUCTION 3 Problem of the Present-Day Economy 3 New Possibilities 4 THE CRYPTAUR CONCEPT 5 CRYPTAUR’S CORE ELEMENTS 6 Peer-to-peer 6 Blockchain 7 Cryptaur Utility Token 8 Cryptaur Pay Platform 9 Social Capital Management System 9 Social Roles and Ways to Contribute 11 SCMS Checks and Balances 11 The Win/Win/Win Benefit Model 12 User Rights Protection System 13 CRYPTAUR’S DECENTRALIZED APPLICATIONS 14 Introduction to Cryptaur dApps 14 A Special Note on Shared Economy 14 Development of dApps 15 The First Cryptaur dApps 16 Prospective dApps Short List 21 PEOPLE 23 Cryptaur Team 23 Cryptaur Legionaries 25 CRYPTAUR TOKEN SALE (FUNDRAISER) 27 Schedule and Terms of the Cryptaur Token Sale 27 Stage One 28 Stage Two 28 Stage Three 29 Stage Four 29 TOKEN ALLOCATION 30 FUNDS ALLOCATION 30 ROADMAP 31

ABSTRACT Middleman is humanity’s main burden. Without However, technological innovations in computing, middlemen, the efficiency of all social interac- logistics and banking give birth to a combined tions would increase several-fold. And, as a con- disruptive technology that may completely change ABSTRACT sequence, the purchasing power of consumers’ the model of interaction between supplier and money would increase, too. This could only be a consumer by removing most of the redundant in- INTRODUCTION dream before. Today modern technologies allow termediary elements. Cryptaur unites these tech- CONCEPT us to make it a reality. nological innovations and further enhances them with a number of its own proprietary solutions CORE ELEMENTS The way goods and services are distributed to- in the field of social capital management and user day is archaic and inefficient. Within this discrim- rights protection. CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS inatory system, suppliers are forced to sell their goods and services for unjustly low prices, while Cryptaur is to increase the efficacy of all social PEOPLE end-consumers have to buy those same goods interactions by freeing them from all kinds of TOKEN SALE and services for too much. This triggers a system- middlemen and by making those interactions im- ic degradation of the quality of goods and services, mediate, transparent, secure and mutually benefi- ROADMAP unjustified increase of advertising and marketing cial. This goal will be achieved by creating a fast costs in the end price of a product, hugely dispro- blockchain-based decentralized value exchange portional share of profits being seized by middle- ecosystem and organizing user interactions on men, and a marked decrease of real purchasing the peer-to-peer basis. The Cryptaur ecosystem power of consumers’ money. will be used by mass users – both suppliers and consumers – from all around the world. 1 See the AgeHack section for more details.

Cryptaur is unique and different from other block- chain-based projects by being not a single dApp service, but rather a framework to host multiple dApps governed by the same rules and powered by the same currency. Cryptaur users will gain access ABSTRACT to potentially unlimited number of specialized P2P services (dApps) and enjoy the economy of scale INTRODUCTION advantages stemming from the growing number of users and services. Specific unique features of CONCEPT the Cryptaur ecosystem include: CORE ELEMENTS 1. Cryptaur utility token (CPT) – the universal 3. Cryptaur Social Capital Management System CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS on-platform payment and reward unit. Unlike fiat (SCMS) – proprietary social relations manage- money and most crypto currencies, the Cryptaur ment engine to direct and reward users’ behaviors PEOPLE token will have an intrinsic value based on (1) ac- for the benefit of all parties to a transaction and tual purchasing power surplus and (2) tokeniza- the user community as a whole. TOKEN SALE tion of the user active lifespan extension. ROADMAP 2. Cryptaur Pay (CPP) – multi-functional payment 4. Cryptaur User Rights Protection System (URPS) platform designed for seamless transactions in- to uniformly protect respective rights of suppliers volving fiat money, conditional currency units (cur- and consumers across all dApps in the Cryptaur rency baskets), and crypto currencies in a risk-free ecosystem with URPS smart-contracts. environment.

INTRODUCTION Problem of the Present-Day Economy relations between the main agents of economic activity woefully depersonalized. This paves the Existing system of distribution of goods and ser- way for consumers to be cheated, often by for- ABSTRACT vices is full of critical flaws that make this system mally legal means. For example, product labeling archaic, vulnerable and inefficient. Most impor- regulations leave little chance for the consumer to INTRODUCTION tantly, it is highly monopolized by large players, know the real ingredient composition of food and CONCEPT which results in economic dictatorship from the beverages, let alone the origin and quality of the wholesale and retail networks whereby suppliers raw materials used. CORE ELEMENTS are forced to sell their products at minimum bulk prices and end consumers have to purchase those Another factor that undermines the efficacy of the CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS very products at unjustifiably high retail prices. existing system is the huge share of marketing and advertising costs in the final price of a prod- PEOPLE uct. All these costs are transferred onto the end Producer is thus deprived of the opportunity to in- vest sufficient funds into R&D and produce prod- consumer, although the contents of marketing TOKEN SALE ucts of decent quality. The rules of the game on communications over the last decades have been ROADMAP the modern market push the producer to cut costs less and less related to a product’s actual prop- and imitate quality while neglecting the actual erties. Instead, marketing has been turning into a consumer properties of a product. As a direct con- tool used to manipulate perceptions of the target sequence, consumer has to buy low-quality and audiences. This trend towards mind manipulation often unsafe products that at the same time are has become particularly pronounced with the ar- ridiculously overpriced. rival of online marketing involving the so called Big Data and heralding the arrival of what could be Producer and consumer being separated from thought of as post-human capitalism and consumer each other by a chain of intermediaries makes the neo-behaviorism.

New Possibilities well as the introduction of totally new delivery vehicles such as flying drones and self-driving At the same time, revolutionary innovations of the trucks. past decades have brought about a number of cru- cial pre-requisites for the outdated and inefficient 4. Development of distributed decentralized com- economic model of supplier/consumer interaction munication networks that allow economic agents to finally be replaced by fundamentally different to interact directly or organize into self-managing ABSTRACT models. Such pre-requisites include the following autonomous producer/consumer communities. components: INTRODUCTION 5. Arrival and spread of new payment methods – 1. Virtualization of data carriers allowing almost from the already widely accepted online banking CONCEPT all information content (books, music, photo, vid- services and PayPal-like payment platforms all CORE ELEMENTS eo, magazines, newspapers, textbooks, dictionar- the way to the relatively new but already well es- ies, etc.) to be distributed and consumed without tablished crypto currencies that offer so many rev- CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS physical media. olutionary benefits to their users. PEOPLE 2. Onlinization of communications between people All these pre-requisites organically merge togeth- that removes existing geographical barriers and er to give birth to a new complex disruptive tech- TOKEN SALE makes any information readily accessible to any- nology that makes it possible to totally re-format ROADMAP one in real time. This trend is bound to continue as existing relationships between subjects of all eco- the last language-related barriers will be eventual- nomic or – in a wider sense – all social interac- ly swept away by the new translator applications. tions. The efficiency of such interactions can be radically increased by the removal of all or nearly 3. Improvement of logistics systems, including new all redundant links of both technical and human powerful tools to manage big amounts of data to nature. optimize costs and times of product delivery, as

THE CRYPTAUR CONCEPT In a nutshell, Cryptaur is a gateway to an alterna- By employing the blockchain technology, Cryptaur tive global economy where users – suppliers and allows for purchasing decisions to be based on consumers – interact directly. The decentralized fully transparent information. Cryptaur connects ABSTRACT blockchain-based Cryptaur ecosystem will provide providers and consumers in an environment where appropriate means and establish relevant rules for goods and services are vetted by the community INTRODUCTION its participants to mutually reap the benefits of im- consensus and their real value as opposed to the CONCEPT mediate and instant value exchange deals, such now prevalent model whereby large players with as sale of goods and services. monetary means maximize product exposure to CORE ELEMENTS consumers so that sales are predicated on expo- Users that join the Cryptaur ecosystem as con- sure rather than on actual product properties. CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS sumers will gain access to a potentially unlimit- ed number of products offered via Cryptaur’s own Synergetically interested in each other, suppliers PEOPLE and third-party specialized decentralized applica- and consumers at Cryptaur will grow in numbers tions (dApps) hosted and governed by the same in an organic way, which will be further facilitated TOKEN SALE principles across the whole ecosystem. by the underlying mechanisms that manage social ROADMAP relationships and behaviors within the ecosystem Suppliers who meet the criteria of the Cryptaur in accordance with models and patterns reliably ecosystem will gain access to a powerful consum- established by social sciences. er base to offer their products at very competitive prices that will still leave room for a reasonable markup. All proceeds from a sale will go straight to the supplier.

CRYPTAUR’S CORE ELEMENTS Peer-to-peer similar to the one mentioned above but at much, much more competitive prices. It is estimated that The peer-to-peer principle of interaction is by far Cryptaur’s economic model will allow to keep price ABSTRACT THE most important element of decentralization. levels on average up to 50% lower than those of- And so it is for Cryptaur. There are many popular fered by competitors for comparable products. INTRODUCTION services out there like Uber or Airbnb that bring suppliers and consumers together but ultimate- This way, consumers will be empowered to buy CONCEPT ly remain to be the central authority with vested better products for less money, while suppliers CORE ELEMENTS interests – those of a profit taker with insatia- will earn more and be able to re-invest more into ble appetite. In such services, consumers do get making better products. The vicious circle of glob- CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS certain price benefits, but suppliers are often the al product quality degradation will be broken at ones who are materially disadvantaged. Thus, the last and an opposite process of product quality PEOPLE improvement without price increases will be initi- service owner remains in the position of a middle- TOKEN SALE man and retains a considerable part of the value ated. exchanged by the interacting parties. ROADMAP Interacting peer-to-peer style, both suppliers and In Cryptaur, value exchange occurs without any consumers will find themselves in an environment middleman involved. The product is delivered to naturally fostering more ethical behaviors of all the end consumer and the supplier gets the pay- the parties involved. Cryptaur will put econom- ment without deductions. Only payment process- ic actors into close proximity thus bringing the ing fees are there, but these are negligible thanks personal aspect back into the game. As a result, to the payment methods used. With this peer- parties to a deal will be organically inclined to act to-peer model in place, Cryptaur intends to offer more responsibly and respectably. a wide range of sharing economy type services

Blockchain services that may have a significant impact on consumers’ health and quality of life, such as food- The next core element of the Cryptaur ecosystem stuffs or food supplements, kids’ toys and clothes, is blockchain. This groundbreaking technology will be subjected to stricter scrutiny. In case of a will be used by Cryptaur for purposes extending service, e.g. house-cleaning or personal coaching, far beyond the obvious applications related to just the person offering the service will be treated like crypto payments. a product and scrutinized for their qualifications, experience and reputation. As it could be expected, Ethereum-based block- chain in Cryptaur will be used to transparently Suppliers will also be expected to disclose the ABSTRACT and verifiably keep record of the history of all pay- price structure of their products, including their INTRODUCTION ments between users. But much more than that, it R&D investments, direct production costs, expens- will store a digital print of each transaction with es for logistics, depreciation charges, taxes, and CONCEPT detailed data confirmed by independent arbitra- the markup they earn. This will establish a new tion reports: gold standard of fair trade and enable consumers CORE ELEMENTS to make informed and intelligent purchasing de- • end-to-end certification; cisions. CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS • detailed product/service properties; PEOPLE • product/service price structure; Importantly to Cryptaur, the motive power that • product/service user rating; makes goods and services flow within dApps and TOKEN SALE • reputational profiles of the interacting parties; across the ecosystem as a whole is not adver- • proof of delivery. tising and marketing, but the user community it- ROADMAP self – consumers will curate products by sharing In order to be admitted to sell their goods and their verified reviews and giving their recommen- services via a Cryptaur-based dApp, suppliers will dations. These acts of curation become part of have to provide detailed information about what a product’s history and are stored on blockchain they are offering and get a positive arbitration re- for verification. Equally important, though, is that port. This is done to ensure the most fundamental the curators themselves are checked for being right of the consumer – to know exactly what they honest. That is why users’ reputational profiles are are buying and to judge for themselves if a certain also put on blockchain. product is really worth their money. Products and

Finally, blockchain in Cryptaur is used to trace the Another function of the Cryptaur token is to re- whole delivery path of a product or a service to ward its users for different desired behaviors. make sure the deal was effected as agreed by its The simplest of such behaviors is making a pur- parties. Only objective transaction-critical path chase which will result in a cashback to the buyer. markers are monitored by relevant smart con- In Cryptaur, this type of rewards is referred to as tracts, such as the date an order was placed in the crypto-paybacks. If a user does something useful system, amount and timestamp of the payment, to the Cryptaur community as a whole, they are en- place and time of delivery. The system will rely on titled to incentives of another type known as shar- the data generated internally and – whenever tech- ing-graces. A verified honest product review or a nically possible – on data of objective monitoring recommendation that led to a further product sale ABSTRACT received from external sources, such as GPS posi- are examples of what sharing-graces are earned INTRODUCTION tioning devices or web-based public records. for. The third type of reward is paid to users for creating and managing consumer groups within CONCEPT Cryptaur Utility Token Cryptaur. These rewards are collectively referred to as team-bounces. CORE ELEMENTS The lifeblood of the entire Cryptaur ecosystem and all of its dApps is the Cryptaur Utility Token (CPT). In addition to the functions that the Cryptaur to- CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS The token is based on the Ethereum platform and ken performs within the ecosystem, it will also be PEOPLE is ERC20-compliant. listed on several crypto-exchanges, allowing users and general public to buy and sell it either for oth- TOKEN SALE The primary function of the Cryptaur token is to er cryptocurrencies or for fiat money. serve as the native currency unit within the eco- ROADMAP system to pay for goods and services. However, The process of decentralized governance in Crypt- users will be able to feely choose the method of aur will be effected in accordance with the ecosys- payment that they prefer as buyers or sellers, in- tem’s Constitution by a meritocratically appointed cluding fiat money (credit and debit cards, bank governing body – Supreme Arbitration Council. transfers), conditional currency units (currency baskets), Cryptaur tokens, as well as cryptocurren- cies and their derivative trade pairs that are freely traded at exchange platforms.

Cryptaur Pay Platform will start using crypto currencies. By inference, the number of those abusing this payment instru- A key idea of Cryptaur is to bring the benefits of ment, i.e. using it for improper purposes, will rise decentralization that are currently the domain of too. This means that honest and law-abiding users a relatively narrow community of crypto-enthusi- will want to be sure they are get paid by someone asts, to the general public. To achieve this Crypt- who can be trusted, that they send their money to aur creates a payment gateway to process pay- someone who is trustworthy, and that the money ments that may entail fiat-to-crypto, crypto-to-fiat, being sent is itself free from bad history. With fiat-to-fiat and crypto-to-crypto conversions in an this in mind, Cryptaur Pay will develop and imple- as seamless and user-friendly way as possible. All ment a proprietary Know Your Risks (KYR) engine ABSTRACT users, consumers and suppliers alike, will be free to check each transaction for potential risks to to choose the payment option of their preference keep a user away from doubtful payment opera- INTRODUCTION without the need to delve into the rocket science tions. CONCEPT of crypto-currencies and crypto-exchanges. Social Capital Management System CORE ELEMENTS On top of that, our goal is to make sure our users do not have to pay high transaction and conver- Explosion of e-commerce and social media has CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS sion fees invariably incurred by all those who con- dramatically transformed the way people inter- vert their fiat money into crypto-currency and vice act with technology. However, no platform has yet PEOPLE versa through existing exchange platforms. Our managed to successfully combine the power of TOKEN SALE plan is to enter into tight partnerships with exist- social media with commerce in a genuinely fric- ing financial institutions as well as to create ele- tionless environment. ROADMAP ments of Cryptaur’s own banking system to keep transaction costs at bay and offer better terms to Social media platforms are flooded with ads, and its users. e-commerce sites are full of reviews that do not represent the potential buyer’s true sources of Cryptaur Pay will also have a number of specific influence. This system is fraught with problems. features whose purpose is to make users’ pay- Marketing companies are ineffective curators of ment experience not just convenient, but safe as products for they are motivated by profit only, and well. Existing trends suggest that in the years to current review systems suffer from multifaceted come huge numbers of mainstream consumers biases that encourage inflated ratings.

Cryptaur introduces its Social Capital Management honest bad rating subjects their own rating to the System that is the basis for a new commercial mod- risk of being damaged by the provider’s return bad el where promotion of a product is tied to users’ rating as a form of retaliation. That is how reci- own experience and the influence that they have procity leads to inflated ratings. Also, in sharing within their own social environment. Cryptaur’s economy suppliers and consumers are brought review system eliminates biases that are known to interact face-to-face. And as human beings are to skew results, whereas Cryptaur’s proprietary naturally inclined to seek social acceptance, it is Contribution Engine rewards the influence of users tempting to leave an inflated positive review to who grow and maintain the networks of their own. someone we directly interact with. This is the ef- fect of proximity. ABSTRACT Marketers and advertisers heavily rely on their INTRODUCTION power to influence perceived value of their prod- Therefore, the best thing consumers can do is ucts and services to convince consumers to buy. turn to their own native social circles to seek CONCEPT Consumers use available information to assess truly reliable information, recommendations, and the cost/benefit ratio of an action, and since this validations for their purchasing decisions. 83% of CORE ELEMENTS information is often paid for by providers, consum- consumers trust the recommendations made by ers tend to end up taking decisions that are not in their friends and family and take action on these CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS their own true interests. recommendations, making the good old word-of- PEOPLE mouth still the most trusted and effective market- Generally, product reviews are losing the trust of ing tool. TOKEN SALE consumers for two main reasons: for being faked and for being biased. Fake reviews are paid for Cryptaur provides consumers with information ROADMAP by suppliers to promote products essentially the that can be trusted because it comes either from same way traditional advertising does, but in a a verified independent source (another user or an disguised form. Real reviews are mostly biased expert) or from a member of consumer’s own so- towards the more positive end of the scale. The cial circle (relative, friend, etc). All these agents latter phenomenon could be explained by two fac- play pre-defined social roles that are scientifically tors: reciprocity and proximity. managed to the benefit of both – a particular user and the community as a whole. A behavior that Sharing economy and peer-to-peer platforms in- the system prescribes and welcomes as desirable volve a two-way rating. A consumer providing an is a contribution.

Complete record of a user’s behaviors creates their enable others to make better purchasing decisions. dynamic reputational scores. These scores have immediate monetary equivalents and, as such, Connect: Through their social connections, indi- represent that user’s social capital. Combined so- viduals may link potential buyers with reviews cial capital of all users may be thought of as our from previous buyers, acting as a trusted informa- ecosystem’s overall added value whose organic tion channel. growth is the ultimate goal of the Social Capital Management System. To reiterate, the goal of the system is to encourage and reward users for being trusted and useful in- Social Roles and Ways to Contribute fluencers in the brand new economic environment ABSTRACT that Cryptaur seeks to create. INTRODUCTION Cryptaur rewards measurable contributions. The following types of contributions are recognized by SCMS Checks and Balances CONCEPT the Cryptaur ecosystem: Any economic incentive is exposed to the risk of CORE ELEMENTS Purchase: Any expenditure of a buyer, whether in being manipulated by individuals or groups in order fiat or in crypto currency, is a contribution which is to profit unfairly. It could seem tempting to leave CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS rewarded in Cryptaur tokens. only positive reviews or even promote products of PEOPLE poor quality in order to earn more rewards. With- Invite: To encourage Cryptaur users to refer in the Cryptaur ecosystem, it is more profitable TOKEN SALE friends, they are rewarded Cryptaur tokens based to behave honestly than to act trickily. To ensure on the future sales and purchases of the individu- this we create a scoring system that reflects the ROADMAP als they invited to the Cryptaur community. degree of trust earned by users and impacts the reward allocation between the contributors. The Promote: Users – simple buyers and experts combined score is based on four behavior-driven alike – may contribute to a purchase by referring indexes: a product or service to others within the Cryptaur ecosystem or through other social channels. Trust: Transparency and honesty of users in their product recommendations inferred from the cor- Influence: Upon delivery of a product, a buyer has relation between a user’s reviews and the reviews the ability to share a positive or negative review to left by subsequent buyers.

Activity: It is assumed that active Cryptaur users Cryptaur consumers are offered an ad-free envi- are more likely to be trustworthy. ronment where the only source of influence is re- views from trusted users and blockchain-based Promotion Performance: High promotion perfor- verifiable data on a product’s properties and sales mance shows that a user’s influence is targeted performance. Furthermore, active consumers are at the right recipients, while promoting a product predictably and fairly rewarded for a known set of to the wrong audience will not generate further re- behaviors that benefit others. A career promoter ferrals. can earn substantial revenues by building a cus- ABSTRACT tomer base and by identifying other promoters in Staking: Higher wallet balances are interpreted as their network that will support the sale of a prod- INTRODUCTION higher levels of a user’s commitment to the plat- uct. This means that direct sales efforts, as well form. Users who are committed to the long-term as team building efforts, are equally important. CONCEPT success and growth of Cryptaur are less likely to abuse its rules. Both suppliers and consumers may freely pursue CORE ELEMENTS their personal goals within the rules of the game CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS The Win/Win/Win Benefit Model accepted across all dApps on the Cryptaur eco- system. At the same time, the ecosystem itself PEOPLE Cryptaur suppliers benefit from a new direct sales benefits from the behavior of its users by organ- channel where the Cryptaur ecosystem is not an ically expanding the range of the goods and ser- TOKEN SALE intermediary but is rather the conductive media for vices offered as well the number of users involved. the buyer and the seller. Suppliers can get imme- This growth, in its turn, brings further benefits to ROADMAP diate access to large numbers of potential buyers the users who may enjoy the economy of scale ad- with virtually zero customer acquisition costs. The vantages that entail lower prices and better quali- Cryptaur ecosystem relies on consumers, and not ty of goods and services, as well lower transaction marketing dollars, to promote products. Suppliers costs. can reward promoters with fiat currency rewards, or simply rely on the system’s native Social Capital Management System that distributes rewards to incentivize their consumers and promoters.

User Rights Protection System dynamic value predicated on the supplier’s reputa- tion and the scale of their commercial operations. User Rights Protection System will be built into the All other things being equal, a supplier with a long core platform and will embrace all dApps residing impeccable history will have to deposit less than in the Cryptaur ecosystem. The goal of URPS is to a newcomer. ensure suppliers and consumers are equally pro- tected whenever a party is mistreated by another If a faulty provider refuses to correct a mistake, ABSTRACT party. consumer guarantees will be funded from the provider deposits. If a provider fails to deliver, the INTRODUCTION At the port of entry , suppliers are understand- URPS will work with the provider to ensure a sat- ably expected to pass through a somewhat more isfactory product delivery or a full refund. Failure CONCEPT to achieve satisfactory remediation will result in stringent compliance procedure because, by de- fault, the damage that they may cause is poten- the provider losing access to the user base in the CORE ELEMENTS tially greater than that normally associated with a Cryptaur ecosystem. CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS single consumer. In practical terms it means that a new consumer will be required to identify just In an opposite case, should a consumer take un- PEOPLE themselves, whereas a supplier will be required to due advantages of their privileges, they may be identify themselves and their products. removed from the Cryptaur ecosystem too. Also, TOKEN SALE providers might refuse service to high risk disput- In addition to that, suppliers will have to make se- ers or repeat offenders. However, it is our strong ROADMAP curity deposits to make sure reasonable funds are belief that both suppliers and consumers will in always available to restore justice in case of a dis- general be motivated to act in good faith because pute in which the supplier is found to be at fault. of the tangible benefits of conducting commerce The amount of the minimum security deposit is a on the platform.

CRYPTAUR’S DECENTRALIZED APPLICATIONS Introduction to Cryptaur dApps The number of dApps that may exist within the Cryptaur ecosystem is potentially unlimited. And As stated elsewhere in this Smartbook, Cryptaur it is our goal to provide as much diversity as pos- ABSTRACT is an ecosystem that is meant to host different sible to our users. However, there are several uni- decentralized applications (dApps). These dApps fying principles each dApp must comply with: INTRODUCTION are the specialized playing fields where specific CONCEPT types of goods and services are grouped around a 1. To abide by the overarching rules universal to the key business idea. whole ecosystem. CORE ELEMENTS 2. To be based on a business model that eliminates To get a better idea of the whole concept, you may middlemen. CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS think of Cryptaur as a state, dApps – as its institu- 3. To make use of the benefits of decentralization. tions, and users – as its citizens. Cryptaur’s con- PEOPLE A Special Note on Shared Economy stitution is a set of basic laws that are universal TOKEN SALE across all dApps. However, within dApps there may be subsets of specific rules relevant and meaning- The world as we know it is moving at a rapid pace ROADMAP ful to those dApps only. And the Cryptaur token from large centralized business models to more can be understood as the national currency . distributed, decentralized and peer-to-peer mod- The comparison to the state has its known limits els. These new models are more efficient, scale though. Unlike a regular state, Cryptaur offers to better and provide more freedom. Uber/Lyft and its citizens all the benefits of decentralization, of Airbnb are examples of most successful busi- which transparency and immutability are the fun- nesses built around distributed and voluntary damental ones. Equally important is that the na- peer-to-peer participants. The sum total of these tional currency of Cryptaur known as CPT is pro- businesses is commonly referred to as shared or tected from inflation by the very emission model. sharing economy. The shared economy has paved

ways for brand new business models and sources Please see the relevant section below on the first of income. dApps to be launched on the Cryptaur platform as well as the short-list of potential dApps to be de- From our perspective, it is in the realm of shared veloped in the future. economy that some of our most successful dApps will appear to challenge the dominance of the The second source of dApps is the “dApp Incubator” well-established yet under-decentralized giants that Cryptaur intends to create to support indepen- ABSTRACT such as Booking or Airbnb. Complete removal of dent developer teams that may apply to us with a the centralized authority as a profit center will dApp proposal at essentially any stage of its ma- INTRODUCTION make our prices more competitive and enable us turity – from just an idea all the way to a finished to conquer a considerable share of the market. product. Depending on particular circumstances, CONCEPT Cryptaur may support further development of the However, although sharing economy does seem to suggested dApp on agreed terms and conditions CORE ELEMENTS be exceptionally conductive to the business mod- or buy it out from the original developers. CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS el developed by Cryptaur, it is not our intention or principle to allow only sharing economy dApps The dApp Incubator will perform three main PEOPLE onto our platform. There are other equally attrac- functions: (1) funding development of promising tive business applications that may successfully dApps; (2) providing platform for alpha and beta TOKEN SALE develop within the Cryptaur ecosystem enabling testing of dApps; (3) providing consumer focus users to enjoy the benefits of decentralization. groups for commercial testing of dApps. ROADMAP Development of dApps Those interested in approaching Cryptaur with a dApp initiative are welcome to do so at our site by There are essentially two sources of dApps for the using the Partnership section. Please be advised Cryptaur ecosystem. The first one is Cryptaur’s that the more specific you are about your proposal, own dApps to be developed by our team in-house. the higher the chances we will get in touch with you.

ABSTRACT The First Cryptaur dApps INTRODUCTION the market now that offer their ICO services, but due to the present-day global crypto-hype such CONCEPT GoICO companies tend to shamelessly charge astronom- ical sums much in the same way legal firms are CORE ELEMENTS notoriously known for. Others might attract naive For many startups, ICO seems to be a most attrac- clients with affordable prices while lacking the re- CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS quired expertise in the field. tive option to raise funds. There is a general con- PEOPLE sensus today that ICO is the new face of crowd- funding. Indeed, attracting investments through Cryptaur intends to launch a specialized dApp that TOKEN SALE ICOs has plenty of advantages over the older ways will turn the process of conducting an ICO from a of funding projects. These advantages include re- stressful and expensive puzzle to an affordable yet ROADMAP moval of all geographic borders for participation, effective DIY exercise. Instead of throwing about better transparency, and more accessible financial hundreds of thousands of dollars or trying to get instruments for participants to contribute. to grips with all the complexities of the fast trans- forming crypto-industry, we will offer our clients a However, a typical successful ICO campaign may set of simple tools to set up their own ICO within have some drawbacks too, like being prohibitively days, including a web site, a white paper, a custom expensive to outsource or too complicated to han- token and further elements of the infrastructure dle in-house. There are quite a lot of companies on that they may require to start.

Our GoICO dApp will make an initial feasibility Cryptoindustry is booming. A huge number of study of an intended project by inviting a client to crypto-novices have already developed genuine in- fill out a questionnaire. Based on the results of this terest towards participation in ICOs. Even greater audit, the system will suggest a number of pre-set number of people are to join the army of the cryp- packages that, rooted in the industry’s best prac- to-enthusiasts in the months and years to come. tices, should suit the client’s cause most. These But despite bold announcements most ICOs make templates can then be further customized to make to the effect that they will provide seamless pay- ABSTRACT sure each project is not just another ICO but ment experience , in most cases investors have to INTRODUCTION is rather an undertaking with clearly articulated convert their fiat money into crypto on their own unique features and recognizable character. in order to participate, while the ICOs of their in- CONCEPT terest ultimately fail to provide that seamless ex- Soon thereafter a new ICO will be ready to take off perience and continue to accept contributions in CORE ELEMENTS without making a hole in the client’s pocket. Then cryptocurrencies only. the client will see in real time how well their ICO is CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS performing. As the ICO progresses, the client will Cryptaur, and the GoICO dApp as a constituent PEOPLE also be able to further tweak some of its parame- part thereof, is among the very few elite league ters, e.g. by adding new features from our toolbox or players on the market to offer truly convenient and TOKEN SALE dropping the ones that seem to be out of place. Con- hassle-free options for ICO backers to contribute veniently, the client will be able to fund further stag- in a simple and convenient way they are used to ROADMAP es of the ICO from the funds raised at earlier stages. – be it credit or debit cards, fiat bank transfers or With a team of accomplished professionals whose mainstream cryptocurrencies. Even now, at a rela- expertise extends far beyond the world of crypto- tively early stage of GoICO development (as of No- currencies, we are able to provide to our clients ex- vember/December 2017) these payment options tensive marketing, operational, legal and, last but are mostly in place. not least, financial support and solutions.

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION CONCEPT In Vitro Veritas CORE ELEMENTS Inspired by the famous Buurtzorg model, this However, services of this kind, particularly in un- CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS prospective dApp will be built around the idea of der-regulated markets, have a number of inherent PEOPLE consumers being offered access to a range of risks. First of all, home-based services mean that secure and affordable home-based health check- the clients grant access to their homes to people TOKEN SALE up procedures. In some countries, express health they do not know. Second, the qualifications of checkup services have become extremely popular. those visitors may be in question. Third, clients ROADMAP are exposed to health risks that might stem from Some of them are being delivered at home or at work. For example, you don’t need to go to a med- poorly designed service workflows. For example, ical institution if you wish to make a blood test. the nurse that takes blood samples may also be A qualified courier will visit you, take your blood expected to accept money from the clients, which sample and deliver it to the lab where the actual could have adverse or even catastrophic effects test will be performed. on the client’s health through contagion.

To address those sensitive issues, Cryptaur in- of the world, including the Russian Academy of tends to create a dApp that would eliminate the Medical Sciences, Wake Forest Institute of Regen- risks by making sure clients will be able to know erative Medicine and the Ukrainian Children’s Car- beforehand who they will welcome into their diac Center. homes, check the qualifications of those medical Exact range of tests to be offered is yet to be de- workers and leave their unbiased reviews on the fined, but it will potentially embrace a wide range quality of services they received. In addition to of options from the traditional blood testing all the this, Cryptaur will make sure the service workflow way to the most advanced genetic and microbi- is free from risky factors such as those related to ome tests. Thus, many health-aware consumers ABSTRACT hygiene. Finally, the labs that would want to act as will gain access to a diverse range of secure, con- contractors, will also be monitored for compliance venient and affordable health check-up services. INTRODUCTION with a best practice checklist to be created in col- Consumers’ privacy will also be a key consider- CONCEPT laboration with Cryptaur’s partners who represent ation for us while developing the application. some of the most respectable medical institutions CORE ELEMENTS CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS PEOPLE TOKEN SALE ROADMAP

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION AgeHack CONCEPT CORE ELEMENTS Natural lifespan limits for humans are a hotly de- are particularly interested to hack the age and bated topic nowadays. However, the general con- achieve better results in terms of their general CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS sensus is that lifestyle has a decisive impact on well-being and longevity. our life expectancy. But lifestyle is an extremely PEOPLE multi-faceted notion, which makes it difficult for Users will get access to the best products and a regular person to create and follow a meaning- techniques, enabling them to test, enhance, and TOKEN SALE monitor their quality of life, as well as to be incen- ful complex healthy regimen, let alone monitor the benefits it is expected to bring. tivized for the healthy achievements they succeed ROADMAP to make. Incentives are offered for the same type Cryptaur’s founders have invaluable experience of behaviors that are rewarded across all dApps in in the realm of wellness in terms of health-related the Cryptaur ecosystem, but specific to AgeHack products, quality of life management, and propri- are additional incentives for the life extension etary health assessment technologies. Based on progress a user makes as it potentially adds more this experience, Cryptaur intends to build a dApp, time this user will be an active transaction maker as a sub-sector of its whole ecosystem, to specifi- on our platform. cally unite those suppliers and consumers who

As essentially with all Cryptaur dApps, users of nership with pharmaceutical distributors. AgeHack with appropriate skills can easily be- come suppliers, e.g. by acting as fitness coaches, 2. Household services offered by individual ex- nutrition advisors, or – more broadly – as quality perts, including electricians, plumbers, baby sit- of life managers. We would expect that a new user ters and so forth, with strong control of their cre- who is enthusiastic about their health will join the dentials by the system to make sure they can be dApp community as a consumer and after mak- trusted and their services are of adequate quality. ing some noticeable progress will also act as a The application, particularly its reputation man- supplier at least by sharing their experience with agement engine, would allow to give objective rat- others or at best becoming a real pro. Whatever ings to both parties of an interaction making each ABSTRACT the role is, any contribution that is useful to the deal predictable, safe, and transparent. And last, INTRODUCTION community will be rewarded. but not least, the peer-to-peer model of interaction is expected to make the services cheaper to the CONCEPT Prospective dApps Short List consumer and better paid for the supplier. CORE ELEMENTS At this stage, Cryptaur is considering a most di- 3. Tourist Guide Service for travelers who visit a verse range of potential dApps it could welcome place where they do not have anyone they know. CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS into its ecosystem. The non-exhaustive list in- Close to the concept of rent-a-gent , the service PEOPLE cludes initiatives in the following domains: allows a traveler to find a friend with adequate background to show the visitor around and there- TOKEN SALE 1. Peer-to-peer Medical Advice Service with qual- by allow them to make the best use of their time ified medical experts, including those who retired during the trip, safely and efficiently. ROADMAP from their active employment, to deliver online consultations to those who need an independent 4. A home sharing/rent-a-flat dApp that would es- opinion on their health-related queries. The dApp sentially mimic the business model of services will provide an efficient medic/client matching en- like Airbnb but challenge them in terms of prices gine as well as a host of useful features such as and convenience. This decentralized application audio and video conferencing, direct file exchange should allow flat owners and tenants to find each and storage (e.g. to send an x-ray scan), pay-as- other and co-operate in a predictable way while you-go tariffication model, the option to create ex- cutting the costs traditionally charged by the mid- pert groups (conciliums), in-app purchases in part- dleman. An extensive list of search criteria will be

available to better match the parties to a deal and their time and gas and pay for the maintenance to share how their reciprocal expectations have of their vehicles. So why let a third party take that been met. big piece of the pie? With our dApp, the drivers will keep the complete fare and just pay a very moder- 5. A peer-to-peer loan exchange platform is anoth- ate transaction and service fee in Cryptaur Tokens er potential dApp for Cryptaur. Existing credit insti- (CPTs). In return, what they are expected to pro- tutions are often too harsh on their clients in terms vide is good service quality and Cryptaur-compli- of the eligibility criteria and the interest rates they ant behavior. ABSTRACT charge. The idea of this dApp is to bring together those who are in need of a small- to mid-size loan 7. As we expect that the whole domain of educa- INTRODUCTION and those who have temporarily unused moneys tion is to be radically changed to co-opt the bene- to offer at a moderate interest. A key element of fits of modern technologies, a dedicated dApp will CONCEPT the system will be participants’ reputations. Apart be created to deliver individual or small-group ed- CORE ELEMENTS from lenders and borrowers as such, there may ucational services online. Those able and willing be other roles in the system, e.g. participants who to teach will meet those willing to study, whereas CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS would act as guarantors to particular borrowers or Cryptaur will audit the credentials of the teachers those who would be willing to buy debts that are and provide convenient learning environment and PEOPLE overdue, etc. settlement tools. TOKEN SALE 6. A ride-sharing dApp to offer cheaper and safer 8. A specialized dApp may be developed for those ROADMAP transportation options to the dApp users and a fair who are passionate about their pets. The function- income opportunity to the car owners who would ality of this dApp will include a knowledge base on like to act as suppliers. Centralized ride sharing how to take care of pets, a live advice service, and services take anywhere from 15 to 30% of the fare most importantly – a complete blockchain-based paid by the passenger. But it is drivers who spend pedigree record for pets that are offered for sale.

PEOPLE Cryptaur Team Dmitry Buriak, CEO & Founder Irantha Duwage, COO ABSTRACT A heavy-weight businessman MBA (Sheffield, UK); Cornell Uni- with vast entrepreneurial expe- versity, Ithaca, USA); BA, Univer- INTRODUCTION rience in a number of industries sity of West London. Before join- CONCEPT from ferrous metallurgy to well- ing Cryptaur Irantha has served ness. Dedicated follower and as Chief Executive Officer in var- CORE ELEMENTS advocate of healthy lifestyle. He ious international holdings, hav- can think big, express his thoughts in right words ing over 22 years of experience in 4 continents. He CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS and turn words into successful projects. A virtuo- has been a true blockchain evangelist since 2012. so motivator and business visionary. PEOPLE TOKEN SALE Yaroslav Compan, CFO Greg Bachrach, CTO ROADMAP BA in Finance, Kyiv-Mohila Acad- Computer engineer and one of emy, ACCA Candidate. Previous- the early Bitcoin professional ly held top managerial positions miners, Greg is dealing with all in PriceWaterhouseCoopers, technicalities of the Cryptaur Roland Berger Strategy and De- project. loitte Ukraine.

Ilya Svirin, Smart Contracts Irina Copanitsa, CCO Co-Founder of PROVER, a block- Irina holds degrees in Econom- chain startup. Ph.D., Tech entre- ics and International Relations. preneur, Founder of Nordawind Prior to Cryptaur she was work- group of companies. Smart-con- ing for Bell Pottinger agency in tract developer for OpenLongev- the U.K., as well as for other in- ity.io, bremtoken.io, NeuroDAO. ternational agencies and firms. com. Blockchain advisor for ico.reorder.world. Now Irina is Head of Communications and Public Digital video surveillance systems developer. De- Relations in Cryptaur. veloper of health-related services ECG Dongle and ABSTRACT CardioCloud. Author of many publications on cy- Dovile Pilipaviciene, CMO bersecurity, programming and smart-contracts. Dovile holds Master degrees in INTRODUCTION Administration and Project Man- Alexey Rytikov, Backend agement. She has 12 years of CONCEPT Cybersecurity developer with over marketing experience and was CORE ELEMENTS 10 years of experience. Backend working with various internation- developer for PROVER blockchain ally recognized companies de- CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS project crowdsale. Key developer veloping marketing strategy. Now she is Head of in a number of research projects. Marketing in Cryptaur. PEOPLE Video surveillance developer. Ivan Pisarev, Blockchain TOKEN SALE Neringa Gumbriene, CLO Co-Founder of PROVER, a block- Educated as Master of Law Sci- chain startup. In IT since 2004. ROADMAP ence, has MBA degree in Interna- Leader in First Issue at Startup tional Law, Neringa supervises Academy in Skolkovo. Distance all legal aspects of the project. learning specialist and tutor. Previously Neringa was hold- Speaker at numerous interna- ing top law executive positions tional conferences. in various international companies. Now board member of a group of companies engaged in real estate, health care business, sports. She is Direc- tor of Legal Department of Cryptaur.

Cryptaur Legionaries Johnny Kartakov Tech entrepreneur with fire who founded a few successful com- panies. Johnny has a technical Victor Tutelian background and good block- Academician at the Russian chain experience. Academy of Sciences; holder of second-level degree in medicine; professor; Chief Research Offi- ABSTRACT Andrey Zamovskiy cer at the Federal Research Cen- INTRODUCTION The founder of Ambisafe has ter for Nutrition, Biotechnology been involved in cryptocurrency and Food Safety; Chief Expert for Nutricion at the CONCEPT development since early 2010. Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. Andrey has founded or took lead- CORE ELEMENTS ing technical roles in multiple Svetlana Akolzina first of their kind projects, such Holder of doctorate degree in CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS as BitMerch, HolyTransaction, Tether and several medicine, Senior research asso- PEOPLE cryptocurrency exchanges. ciate at a laboratory of the Feder- al Research Center for Nutrition, TOKEN SALE Oleksii Matiiasevych Biotechnology and Food Safety, Smart contracts engineer. Olek- Head of Quality of Life Research ROADMAP sii has 10 years in mission-crit- Department at Vision International People Group ical software engineering and working with the World Health Organization Quali- has been writing Ethereum ty of Life Questionnaire. smart contracts full-time over the last year. During his engage- ment with Ambisafe, he has developed five DAO- like tokens with the most advanced features you can find on these kinds of contracts.

Elmantas Pocevičius General Manager at Švenčionių Vaistažolės (Lithuania); Gener- al Manager at Acorus Calamus (Lithuania); Head of R&D depart- ment at Vision DEM4 Laboratory (Lithuania), lector at Vilnius Uni- Dr. Simon Schnoll ABSTRACT versity, MD from Lithuanian University of Health Simon Schnoll is a biophysicist, Science, Faculty of Medicine. International Execu- and a historian of Soviet science. INTRODUCTION tive MBA Roskilde University Denmark. He is a professor at Physics De- CONCEPT partment of Moscow State Uni- Dr. Aubrey De Grey versity and a member of Russian CORE ELEMENTS Chief Science Officer at SENS Academy of Natural Sciences. Research Foundation, a Califor- His fields of interest are the oscillatory processes CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS nia-based charity dedicated to in biology, the theory of evolution, Chronobiology, combating the aging process. and the history of science. PEOPLE Biomedical gerontologist. Edi- tor-in-Chief of Rejuvenation Re- TOKEN SALE search, the world’s highest-impact peer-reviewed ROADMAP journal focused on intervention in aging. He re- ceived his Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge.

CRYPTAUR TOKEN SALE (FUNDRAISER) Schedule and Terms of the Cryptaur Token Sale ABSTRACT Following the example set by the Ethereum Foun- Before participating in the Cryptaur token sale, please dation, there is no cap on the amount of contribu- carefully read our Terms and Conditions for legal re- INTRODUCTION tions that will be accepted by Cryptaur. The total strictions. By participating in our token sale you are CONCEPT amount of Cryptaur tokens to be issued will be de- considered to have agreed to those Terms and Condi- termined by the results of the token presale that tions and to have confirmed your eligibility. CORE ELEMENTS ended on October 31, 2017, and the token sale that will commence on November 27, 2017. All tokens Cryptaur token sale will be done in 4 stages: CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS sold during presale and sale will together consti- tute 30% of all tokens. 1. From November 27 through December 7, 2017. PEOPLE 2. From January 22 through January 31, 2018. TOKEN SALE During the token sale, contributions may be made 3. From February 12 through February 20, 2018. in Ethers or Bitcoins. We also expect that token 4. From March 5 through March 12, 2018. ROADMAP sale participants will be offered an option to con- tribute conveniently using their credit and debit cards and/or bank transfers with certain coun- try-dependent restrictions (TBC). The base price of 1 CPT is established at $0.01.

Stage One not participate in the bounty reward program and their bounty-eligible downline users will be pulled At this stage Cryptaur tokens (CPTs) will be sold up to the next bounty-eligible user above them. from November 27 through December 7, 2017 with The compression procedure only affects the way 40% discount on the first day and 20% discount bounty is calculated at each given token sale thereafter. The minimum contribution will be $50 stage and does not otherwise affect the hierarchi- (in CPT equivalent). Participants will also benefit cal group structure of groups of users. ABSTRACT from our referral program bounties available to those who will hold at least 10000 CPTs in their Bounties will be calculated and awarded approxi- INTRODUCTION mately one week after this token sale stage is over. Cryptaur wallets by the bounty allocation time. Bounties will be awarded in Ethers based on the The awarded bounties can then be withdrawn to CONCEPT contributions of those who were invited into Crypt- any Ether wallet address or re-invested into CPTs. CORE ELEMENTS aur by a given participant or those invited by that participant’s invitees and so on according to the In case of re-investment the discount will be 40% CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS following percentage scheme: on November 27, 2017 and then 20% till January 22, 2018. PEOPLE From Level 1: 3% From Level 2: 3% Stage Two TOKEN SALE From Level 3: 3% ROADMAP From Level 4: 3% At this stage Cryptaur tokens (CPTs) will be sold From Level 5: 4% from January 22 through January 31, 2018 with From Level 6: 4% 20% discount on the first day and no discount thereafter. The minimum contribution will be $50 The bounty will be awarded with the so called (in CPT equivalent). Participants will also benefit compression procedure applied, meaning that from our referral program bounties same as at those users who have less than 10000 CPTs in Stage One. their wallets by the time bounty is calculated, will

Stage Three At this stage Cryptaur tokens (CPTs) will be sold from February 12 through February 20, 2018 with no discount. The minimum contribution will be $50 (in CPT equivalent). Participants will still ben- efit from our referral program bounties same as at ABSTRACT Stages One and Two. INTRODUCTION Stage Four CONCEPT At this stage Cryptaur tokens (CPTs) will be sold CORE ELEMENTS from March 5 through March 12, 2018 with no dis- CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS count. The minimum contribution will be $1000 (in CPT equivalent). Participants will still benefit from PEOPLE our referral program bounties same as at Stages One, Two, and Three. TOKEN SALE TOKEN ALLOCATION ROADMAP

Token Sale – 30% Presale/Sale Bounty – 20% Contributions made during presale and sale will Bounty earned in Ethers by participants of token represent 30% of all tokens. presale and sale. Cryptaur Founders – 20% Cryptaur Founders – 20% 20% of tokens will be distributed among Cryptaur founders. These tokens will vest over a period of Marketing & PR – 10% 1 year. Investor Refund – 10% ABSTRACT Cryptaur Team – 10% INTRODUCTION 10% of tokens will be distributed among Cryptaur Operations/Development – 40% team members. CONCEPT User Incentives – 40% CORE ELEMENTS These 40% will be issued to reward Cryptaur us- ers for different useful behaviors – from making CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS purchases to promoting products and extending June 2017 PEOPLE Cryptaur’s user base. FUNDS ALLOCATION TOKEN SALE ROADMAP

ROADMAP • Cryptaur fundamental principles. • Token sale Stage Two (Jan 22 thru Jan 31). • Cryptaur Manifesto and crusade • Cryptaur token exchange listing. against the middleman. • Cryptaur ecosystem Technical paper. • Token presale start. ABSTRACT February 2018 October 2017 INTRODUCTION • Token sale Stage Three (Feb 12 thru Feb 20). • Token presale finish (successfully raised • Cryptaur fiat-to-crypto bridge. CONCEPT over $20 million). • GoICO dApp. • Final Team composition. CORE ELEMENTS • Corporate infrastructure creation. March 2018 CRYPTAUR’S DAPPS November 2017 • Token sale Stage Four (Mar 5 thru Mar 12). PEOPLE • In Vitro Veritas dApp. • New web site. • dApp Acquisition Expert Panel. TOKEN SALE • Updated Smartbook. • Token sale Stage One (Nov 27 thru Dec 7). April 2018 ROADMAP December 2017 • Cryptaur token free trade at crypto-exchanges. • Credit/debit cards contribution option. • AgeHack dApp. • Strategic partnerships. • Announcement of further milestones. • dApps incubator and supply chain beauty contest . January 2018