MediBloc Whitepaper

Saturday, June 16, 2018
Download document
Save for later
Add to list

WHITEPAPER VERSION 1.0 OCT 2017 MEDIBLOC TEAM WWW.MEDIBLOC.ORG This White Paper states the current views of MediBloc Inc. concerning the MediBloc platform and related matters. MediBloc Inc. may from time to time revise this White Paper in any respect without notice. The information presented in this White Paper is indicative only and is not legally binding on Medi- Bloc Inc.. or any other party. This document is for informational purposes only and does not constitute and is not intended to be an o er to sell, a solicita- tion of an o er to buy, or a recommendation of: (i) Medi Tokens, (ii) an investment in the MediBloc platform or any project or property of MediBloc Inc., or (iii) shares or other securities in MediBloc Inc. or any a liated or associated company in any jurisdiction. Please read the important legal disclaimers at the end of this White Paper. 1 of 30

TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract 1. Introduction 1.1 Problem Overview 5. Use cases 1.2 Mission statement of MediBloc Team 5.1 Personal Health Report 5.2 Automated Insurance Claims 2. New Medical Information System 5.3 P2P Healthcare Data Market 5.4 Arti cial Intelligence & Medical Chatbot 2.1 Maximum Security 5.5 Clinical Trial 2.2 High Reliability 5.6 Telemedicine 2.3 High level of Transparency 5.7 Social Networking Service 2.4 High Interoperability 2.5 High Accessibility 2.6 PHR 6. Roadmap 6.1 Platform Roadmap 3. Technical Detail 6.2 Basic App Roadmap 3.1 Platform Structure 7. Others (Legal Considerations, etc.) 3.2 Platform Components Reference 4. Token Model 4.1 Medi Point, MP 4.2 Medi Token, MED 4.3 Token Generation Event 2 of 30

MediBloc: Blockchain-based Healthcare Information Ecosystem Abstract The current state of electronic health records are centrally-stored by medical institutions. In addition, medical privacy laws have restricted health records to be only obtainable by the patient, giving healthcare providers primary steward- ship of patient data. Centralized repository of medical data have prevented a holistic understanding of patient medical status, and this scattering of data across various organizations have diminished the quality of patient care. While de- mand for medical data continues to increase, there is just a lack of reliable, quality data for medical research and Arti - cial Intelligence. And despite the large amount of data being produced, the actual data that can be applied is limited. Which goes back to the core problem of valuable healthcare data being siloed and distributed among various institu- tions. MediBloc is an open-source healthcare data platform built on the blockchain. It compiles a complete indexed history of all patient medical information; validating and securing every change along the day. It can safely secure and integrate scattered data from various institutions, and also collect data from devices like the smartphone. Patients manage their personal medical records based on individual needs, setting grounds for exercising ownership and control over person- al medical records. Patients have full access to their data and can assign access permissions for medical institutions and allow authorization for those who can write data on MediBloc. Also other participants- individuals, research institu- tions, private corporations interested in obtaining medical information will be able to access with permission. In addi- tion, software engineers and developer communities can build new services with the MediBloc platform API and SDK to exchange data with the platform and drive innovations in the healthcare applications market. MediBloc will issue Medi token(MED), the cryptocurrency used on this platform, to build a competitive ecosystem. Med- iBloc users will be incentivized for their contribution on the MediBloc platform. This will reward participants- ranging from patients to healthcare providers- with MED. MED can also be used to complete transactions for medical and pharmaceutical expenses, insurance premiums, etc. at institutions associated with MediBloc. MediBloc o ers a healthcare data exchange platform/ecosystem, that will promote interoperability and allow all enti- ties- patients, practitioners, medical institutions- to freely take part in exchanging data. We believe that the MediBloc platform will revolutionize the healthcare industry by redistributing the rights to data ownership and viewing permis- sion of healthcare data. 3 of 30

1. Introduction Individual medical institutions have the sole authority to medical data of patient, prohibiting any exchange of medical data outside of the speci c institution, with the exception of patient s request for personal information. It is extremely di cult to utilize data because the records are not compatible between di erent hospital systems. With increased de- mand for medical data exchange by professionals in the medical eld and also patients, various entities have made attempts to gather health information. Examples of these e orts include the Blue Button Connector[1], a US govern- ment led project, Apple s Mobile Healthcare Application [2], and Samsung s Mobile Healthcare Application [3]. Al- though many other services are being introduced, digital healthcare services have not yet satis ed the requirements for an ideal healthcare information system, such as security, reliability, and transparency. As a result, they have not re- ceived active participation from healthcare service consumers, healthcare service providers, and the healthcare indus- try in general[4]. However, the MediBloc team is certain that it can create a system that can satisfy all requirements of an ideal healthcare information system by using blockchain technology, which is rapidly developing in nance. Taking one step further, we hope to bring an innovation in the industry of healthcare by providing a platform that can o er services or applications related to health and medicine by using healthcare data and by building a system that supports patient- centered care, precision medicine and predictive care. 1.1 Problem Overview Anyone who has ever visited more than one hospitals have experienced taking one medical examination, then repeat- ing the same test that was previously done at a previous hospital. It is because in many cases, your information in the previous hospital is not transferable to a di erent hospital. Ine cient exchange of medical information becomes preva- lent as the current system is centered around medical institutions. Along with government regulation considers private healthcare information as highly classi ed information. HIPAA(Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) of the United States [5] states the regulations which all medical service providers and medical institutions should oblige to for the protection of medical information. According to HIPAA, the party which can deal with medical information is highly limited. Sharing medical information is allowed to a minimum level, only in cases when it is necessary to share. As a result, medical information is managed by the medical institution in which a patient was treated or by insurance companies. Other countries have accepted similar regulation like the HIPAA, so it is highly likely that medical informa- tion exchange will not be swiftly executed in most countries. Another factor that makes exchange of medical data di - cult is the lack of digitalization of data. According to a research by U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, only a half of total medical institutions has an EMR/EHR system which has complete functionality. [6] 4 of 30

Under the current state of centralized repository of medical data, there is no guarantee in the integrity and security of patient data. Moreover, risk in terms of data loss or hacking is inevitable. In this situation, individuals cannot au- tonomously utilize their medical information, have little trust in data credibility, and are exposed to high risk of person- al information leakage. In fact, the number of healthcare data breaches are only increasing. In 2015, more than 112 mil- lion healthcare records were breached just in the United States and annual nancial loss is recorded to be over $6.2 billion [7,8]. - Number of records exposed (1000 records) [ Source: Department of Health and Human Services O ce for Civil Rights ] Restrictions in healthcare information exchanges also limit healthcare providers and medical experts from performing the best care, and unnecessary repeated tests and attempts for data reconciliation can cost a lot of time and money. A research has shown that when healthcare information exchange is well conducted, the overall laboratory tests and ra- diology examinations can be reduced by more than 50% in the emergency department [9]. The current healthcare data 5 of 30

system, speci cally the insurance industry, is dealing with losses every year due to its inability to prevent health insur- ance fraud. It costs more than $487B world wide, and records from 2011 show that, in the US, this cost consists of one- fth of all medical expense [10]. In addition, falsi cation or forgery of information by healthcare providers happen quite frequently. However, there are lack of system today that prevent this broader societal issue. The existing problems of the process of collecting healthcare data do not end here. Digital health data is highly sought after by biomedical and public health researchers and other business stakeholders in the healthcare industry [11]. In order to conduct precise evidence-based research, experts require high-quality, organized records for analysis, but in most of the cases, data is transferred without informing patients, resulting the growth of concern about this. Further- more, the rights and issue to personal healthcare data is increasingly drawing attention because medical institutions are abusing their rights and make information exchanges without informing patients [12]. Currently, in the US, certain cases allow for sharing of information that has been de-identi ed. But it has become very easy to re-identify the exact patient, with all of the personal data available and with the help of social media [13, 14]. 1.2 Mission statement of MediBloc Team Improve healthcare access and experience by redistributing value of personal healthcare data, accelerating the world s shift to private information decentralization. The MediBloc team brings medical expertise to disrupt the way in which electronic medical data is managed in the healthcare industry, through decentralization. We have designed an interoperable healthcare data system that is both secure and transparent, that empower patients to own and gather their own health data. Using this dataset, the Medi- Bloc platform can be used by healthcare professionals and other stakeholders in building a variety of health-related applications and services. We will also o er a special opportunity to incentivise every participant that helps build and sustain the platform. 6 of 30

2. MediBloc, New Medical Information System There have been many attempts to liberate and analyze the current health record system- kept by large medical organi- zations. It remains di cult, as the healthcare data industry serves multiple entities, all with di erent interests. In order to overcome the barrier, there needs to be a dramatic shift in the current system. MediBloc uses blockchain technology that re-envisions the healthcare data system to be consumer-centered. It will provide an ideal Personal Health Record (PHR) [15] platform that brings reliable and transparent dataset for medical records. MediBloc is more than a data exchange service. It is a healthcare data platform that opens the possibility for variety of services. Developers will be able to use the open-source API and SDK to create services using the MediBloc platform. MediBloc uses a cryptocurrency, Medi token (MED), that will build a medical information economic ecosystem in which consumers are at the core. We will also provide a unique opportunity to receive incentive for participating on this healthcare data platform. The following sections will more closely dive into the characteristic of MediBloc 2.1 Maximum Security According to the HIPAA privacy rules, all medical information must be kept con dential. The current state of electronic healthcare data is collected and stored by individual healthcare providers, risking and opening the various people in- volved in healthcare to have access to the data. According to recent studies, it is more likely for private information to be released from inside leaks/mistakes rather than breaches from the outside [16]. MediBloc hopes to block the possibility of these leaks and reduce access to private health data by taking the rights from big corporations and giving it to the 7 of 30

individual patients. Patients themselves will have the authority to access, decrypt and collect all of their healthcare in- formation with the blockchain technology. This will minimize the number of people involved in collecting private healthcare data and also lower the risk of leaking of healthcare data. In addition, it will prevent the recurring cases of thousands of medical data breaches through attacking of large medical institutions [17]. 2.2 High Reliability MediBloc stores healthcare information in a decentralized data storage. In order to prevent data loss, we will continu- ously generate backup data, verify the integrity of the data and when modulations are surfaced, recover the original data by using the backup data. Making it impossible for users to easily delete and modify data will ossify the integrity and reliability of medical data stored on MediBloc. We also allow only veri ed medical practitioners through the health- care provider s credential system and further strengthen the reliability of our system by keeping a record of the speci c writer and con rm through blockchain. Only when given the authority can a medical practitioner view the healthcare data of another person. 2.3 High level of Transparency MediBloc records the activity of those who write/read/access that information on the blockchain. Currently, it is di cult to track where and how an individual s healthcare information is being used, but MediBloc will transparently provide information on when, where and for what purpose the healthcare information was used. By allowing consumers to have authority and manage personal healthcare data, MediBloc can fundamentally stop exploitation of healthcare in- formation. 2.4 High Interoperability MediBloc is an open-source platform. Various platform applications can freely be connected using the healthcare data stored on the platform. Already standardized data such as medical images or genetic information can be easily interop- erable and transferred through MediBloc. For data that not yet has a standardized format like medical records, labora- tory results, test results, etc., we choose to enhance interoperability by supporting various formats, rather than select- ing a single standardized recording format. In order to support this, MediBloc plans to provide API/SDK for diverse for- mats, starting with the HL7 FHIR(Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources)[18], and also allow anyone to develop a code supporting other formats. With high level of exibility and scalability as a basis, MediBloc o ers interoperability that tops any of the current healthcare information system. 8 of 30

2.5 High Accessibility MediBloc stores all healthcare information in a decentralized database, where users can easily access it anywhere through the Internet. Healthcare data is restricted outside the medical institution and there are still limitations in some cases where services to access healthcare data are provided. MediBloc provides a system that separates itself from any single medical institution, no longer relying on big institutions to provide access healthcare information to customers and practitioners. 2.6 Patient-centered Healthcare Information System MediBloc will use blockchain- the symbol of decentralization- to disrupt the current healthcare data system and to achieve data integration. MediBloc not only allows for storing healthcare data produced by a medical institution, but also collectively stores Patient-Generated Health Record (PGHR). Information produced outside of the hospitals, along with data recorded by patients themselves can all be stored in MediBloc. Integrated healthcare data can be widely used for, from general treatment at local hospitals to personalized mobile healthcare services. 9 of 30

3. MediBloc Technical detail 3.1 Platform Structure The MediBloc platform consists of three layers: Core, Service, and Application. 3.1.1 First Layer: MediBloc Core The Core layer is a healthcare data network, a distributed database that uses the latest encryption technology to safe- guard data. Since the amount of data that can be stored in the blockchain is very limited, separate storage is required to e ciently store healthcare information and this separate storage is provided in the Core layer. The data generated and transferred by applications using MediBloc-provided SDK is rst encrypted with individual private key - only the owner of the data can decrypt it. The Core layer is accessible through the Service layer. In addition, MediBloc Core Layer pro- vides a backup and recovery system so that data can be safely stored without being lost. 3.1.2 Second Layer: MediBloc Service MediBloc s Service Layer provides fundamental services that connect the Application Layer and Core Layer. The Service Layer uses information based on blockchain, and allows for data input/output through connection with the Core Layer. Internally, the service layer can be divided into: 1. EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) based Smart Contract and 2. con- necting Application and Core layers. Smart Contract account information includes MED balance, and medical informa- tion within the Core layer, etc. MediBloc hopes to minimize operational costs by minimizing data stored on the actual blockchain, including Smart Contact data. 10 of 30

3.1.3 Third Layer: MediBloc Application In the MediBloc Application layer, various applications, from web, mobile, etc., can manage and utilize the healthcare information. These applications are accessible through the Service Layer of the platform. For easier and faster app de- velopment, we o er SDK, which will help create applications that can be linked to the MediBloc platform. However, we do not restrict users to any use of SDK, as long as developers follow the communication protocols for the future plat- form. We will provide more speci c examples of application use in Chapter 5. Use Cases. 3.2 MediBloc Platform Compoinents The MediBloc platform is an EVM-based decentralization application (DApp). EVM is currently most widely used for smart contract development. Therefore, with time, cost, versatility, and reliability in mind, it is the most productive to develop MediBloc as a DApp based on EVM instead implementing the whole blockchain network. In addition, EVM is supported by multiple blockchain platforms such as Ethereum (ETH) [19] as well as Qtum[20] and EOS [21], opening the possibility for MediBloc to exibly choose the best platform depending on the situation. The advantage of using Qtum is that it has the positive characteristics of both Bitcoin (BTC) and Etherium and it is currently the most scalable public blockchain due to the use of POS (Proof of Stake) consensus algorithm. Qtum is also a China-based platform and will help MediBloc advance into the Chinese market. The MediBloc platform mainly holds three categories of information: MED balance, personal information, and health- care data. It would be optimal to be able to hold all these information on the blockchain, but due to practical con- straints such as cost, storage capacity and performance, large data including personal information, healthcare data, etc. should be encrypted and saved outside of the blockchain. Only the hashed value of these data will be recorded onto the blockchain. To construct a decentralised database system, Inter Planetary File System (IPFS) [22] will be used. 3.2.1 MediBloc Account There are three di erent types of accounts that can be created in the MediBloc platform: General Users, Healthcare Providers (medical practitioners, institutions) and Data Researchers (medical researchers, healthcare apps/services). The di erent accounts will have di erent authority and roles in the MediBloc ecosystem. The table below goes into more speci cs on accessibility of the three accounts. 11 of 30

General Users Healthcare Providers Data Researchers Read and write personal Full access All possible All possible healthcare data • In emergency situations (some information accessible without • Account owner consent required. • No access, unless with the permission) Read others - Marked as Access request by consent of account owner. healthcare data Data Researcher (Option to disclose to family) • Account owner consent required. - Marked as Access request by a Healthcare Provider • No access, unless with the • Not possible by default, but it can • Only possible with account Write on others consent of account owner. be done at the account owner's owner s approval and marked as healthcare (Option to disclose to family) approval healthcare provider-generated information - Marked as Patient- - Marked as non-healthcare record Generated Record professional-generated record Healthcare Providers and Data Researchers must show proof of their certi cation. In order to distinguish the data gen- erated by General Users and Healthcare Providers, and Data researchers, we have provided the information in the chart above. For General Users, no access will be granted to other users. However, there may be instances where the account is managed on behalf of a family member who has di culty using the MediBloc directly. Therefore, it is possible to ac- cess the other person s account with the patient s consent. In other cases, where a patient loses consciousness due to an accident or illness, and make it di cult for him or her to pass their medical information, the healthcare consumer may collect important information (eg. blood type) for emergency separately marked by the patient. Healthcare providers have the right to this information under special circumstances without the approval of the account owner. There are two main cases for a patient to receive a request to access their healthcare information. First, if a practitioner requests to view your data for a medical examination, Second, for either medical researchers or developers wanting to use the patient s data to do a research or to develop healthcare services. 3.2.2 Healthcare Provider Credential System In order to distinguish general users from healthcare providers, we o er the Healthcare Provider Credential System. In order to keep information on the MediBloc platform reliable, medical practitioners and institutions must give proof of their certi cations. The data provided by medical practitioners will naturally have more weight on the MediBloc plat- form. MediBloc will operate a certi cation system that is a hybrid of veri ed decentralization approach and peer-to-peer method, both from trustworthy and certi ed systems. To increase reliability of the P2P method, the authenticator will deposit a xed Medi Point (MP). Those who honestly participate and verify will be rewarded, while those who fail to veri- 12 of 30

fy will be penalized. P2P veri cation ultimately makes nal decision based on participant votes. Individual judge s votes will be disclosed and Indorse[23] be supported by a method similar to ATP. 3.2.3 MediBloc Database Electronic clinical records require very small storage and is di cult to go beyond a few megabytes, but medical images can be more than hundreds of megabytes. The size of genomic data depends on the degree of data processing, but also may require several gigabytes or more. It is not ideal to save all medical data onto the blockchain. Therefore, MediBloc encrypts data using a private key that can only be decrypted by the owner, stores the data outside of blockchain and only the hash value of it is saved in the blockchain. We plan to build our own data network based on IPFS [22]. Personal devices (smartphones, computers, etc.) will be used as the primary data storage and MediBloc Core will be a backup storage to prevent from data loss. Data collected by personal devices (smartphones, computer, etc.) will be kept in o -blockchain storage. Users can enjoy various personalized healthcare services through the collected information. Integrity of the stored data can be veri ed through the hash value in the blockchain. In the case of data loss on personal devices, MediBloc o ers a backup system. Every user will receive 1GB of free storage space for medical data, usually enough to store all clinical records and medical images. In the case of patients with ge- nomic data and frequent hospital visitors, the user may need more than 1GB, then we o er low costs for additional storage space. MediBloc complies with international standards set forth by HIPPA, etc. in managing all of our data stor- ages. 3.2.4 MediBloc Data Search System MediBloc Service Layer o ers data search functions. This is one of the key functions of this service, allowing users to search for information they are looking for. For this purpose, MediBloc will operate its own search system. All users have the authority to deny access for their healthcare information to come up on the searchers. Therefore, this search func- tion is primarily intended for users who have allowed access to be searched. Every user can set search-related restrictions in the settings. Once a user allowed their medical data to be searched, their index information data will be stored by the MediBloc search system. Medical researchers can collect useful and relevant data through the MediBloc search system and exchange the data with the data owner in P2P manner through Smart Contract. In order to keep any type of exposure/ breaching to a minimum, MediBloc will use Intel® Software Guard Extensions (SGX) [24], a system that blocks even the system administrator from accessing the data. Sensitive patient data will all be saved in enclave , minimizing any risk of exposure and keeping data safe. 13 of 30

For users that want to keep their information generally out of the search system, but are willing to sell or donate their medical data for special cases, there is an option to do so. For those data researchers looking to obtain speci c data, they can not only use the real-time search system, but also post a data request with data requirements and compensa- tion for providing the data on the MediBloc network. Every MediBloc user can select certain conditions on their person- al devices and set push-noti cations to participate in data sharing. All of these functions are operated in the back- ground, minimizing excessive user participation. 14 of 30

4. Token Model MediBloc will issue Medi Token (MED), following the QRC token standard(the Qtum token standard that corresponds to Ethereum ERC20) [25]. MediBloc is Qtum-based, but Qtum currently uses the same protocol as Ethereum when it comes to token, therefore making Qtum-based tokens included as ERC20. Medi Token is main source of socio economic exchange in the MediBloc platform and is a critical element for allowing all potential users (General Users, Healthcare Providers (medical practitioners, institutions) and Data Researchers (medical researchers, healthcare apps/services)) to interact with the various layers of the platform described under Section 3.1 above. The MediBloc platform will use with- in it Medi Points (MP), a points based system which measures participation on the platform (and provides a reputational score within the MediBloc ecosystem). MP cannot be exchanged between users, nor be taken outside of the platform. MediBloc uses MP, along with MED in order to have an objective scaling system to maximize data exchange reliability. Therefore, an MP score will be an indicator to measure the amount of contribution to the MediBloc ecosystem. MP does not represent a medical practitioner s medical achievements/ skill level. However, MP may be one of the relevant refer- ence points for patients to select the right medical practitioner. It should not be an indicator for skill/ experience level. 15 of 30

4.1 Medi Point, MP Medi Point (MP) is the measurement of amount/ extent of contribution by users. The gure above illustrates how points are acquired/ used. The easiest way to get MP is to use MED to buy MP. The following graph illustrates the exchange rate from MED to MP. The MED and MP ratio remains constant until it shows a logarithmic function type where there is a sharp drop in the conversion rate. In order to obtain the basic MP (2000 MP in the gure below), users can simply pur- chase the points using MED. However, in order to obtain much more MP, users must purchase a signi cantly larger amount of MED or actively participate in producing or trading data. The basic MP can be viewed as the minimal contri- bution by medical providers or researchers seeking data from the general users. Based on the estimated published val- ue of MED, the MED of 2000 MP is expected to be valued at $10, a fairly reasonable entry requirement. 16 of 30

The amount of MP basically increases in proportion to the activity on the platform. In the case of medical practitioners, MPs are paid in return for creating medical records. For general users, simply the use of MediBloc to manage personal healthcare information is contributing to the platform, and MPs will be rewarded. The amount of compensation will be determined by the type of medical information recorded and on the value of Medi Point of the data recorder at the time of the recording. In addition, a small amount of MP will be rewarded for all activities within the platform to encourage continued activity. The MPs collected can be converted to MED after a three-month reservation period. The MP to MED conversion rate is determined by the size of the MP and 30% of MED in MED pool. Therefore, the conversion rate will be constantly uctu- ating and we will provide a real-time conversion rate. All MPs used to convert to MEDs will be incinerated. To encourage continuous activity on the platform, there will be an expiration period for MPs. MP settlements will be completed on a monthly basis and MPs will disappear after 24 months. This will prevent unnecessary in ation in the ecosystem caused by inactive MPs, which will promote a healthy ecosystem. Finally, MPs can be used in the P2P veri cation process. The automated veri cation method is similar to the model of Indorse [23], a program which aims to be the LinkedIn of the decentralized world. Anyone who has special skills can claim to be veri ed within the platform. This claim is delivered to other users within the network and those who receive the claim can make a decision on participating in the veri cation process. In order to participate, users must bid with their personal MPs. Veri cation results are based on the majority rule vote. Those who vote according to the veri cation result will be rewarded with MPs and those who failed to do so will lose MPs. To avoid disclosing information about 17 of 30

veri ed participants, we will be using a zero-knowledge proof method similar to the Anonymous Indorsement Protocol, de ned by Indorse. 4.2 Medi Token, MED Medi Token (MED) is di erent from Medi Point (MP) in that it allows for exchange between MediBloc users and also with those outside of the platform. MED and MP can be used to pay for the cost of exchanging data and information, and for all services associated with the platform, supporting the socio-economic ecosystem of MediBloc. They can also be used to encourage participation of medical consumers and healthcare providers who have not yet joined MediBloc. The MediBloc platform has a MED pool to continuously foster and develop the internal ecosystem. After ICO, MED will be issued in the following way: 5% in ation on the rst year and 30% less in ation every following year. To be more speci c, 3.5% in ation on the second year and issuing of tokens will end after 10 years. Users can advertise to others through the MediBloc platform, and all costs will be paid through MED and collected in the MED pool. It is free to use the platform, but if MED goes through a data trading, users will pay a 10% commission, which is put into the MED pool. All MediBloc users will receive 1GB of free storage (1GB of storage capacity, 1GB/ month of bandwidth), and will charge more according to the usage amount. With that said, only 0.01% of all users are expected to need more than 1GB of storage and based on Storj [26], the service currently providing storage space, the fee is expected to be small. Finally, MED used to purchase MP will all be included in the MED pool. Of the MED in MED pool, 50% is set aside for promotion & network usage fee (cost of creating smart contracts for the account), basic storage capacity and etc. It may also be used for developing applications and services to expand the whole ecosystem. The rest of the 30% will be used to transfer MP to MED, and since this value is not constant, the ex- change rate is predicted to uctuate. The last 20% will be used for operation, maintenance and further development costs. 18 of 30

Platform users, including token holders, participate in collecting and sharing their own healthcare information through MediBloc, making the MediBloc platform more powerful and more valuable. Therefore, the MediBloc platform can be seen as a result of the activities of the token holders. Numbers and rates related to Token Mechanism may be subject to change depending on a subsequent simulation process. 4.3 Token Generation Event The purpose of MED generation = build MediBloc platform and support development of healthcare information ecosys- tem based on the MediBloc platform. Generally, people can participate with QTUM. We plan to make funding with Bit- coin (BTC) and Etherium (ETH) available and the information on accurate conversion ratio for each cryptocurrency will be available on o cial communication channels (our website, Slack, Facebook) and participants can access Tokens by following the MED Token Sale Terms and Condition . 50% of the Tokens will be granted to TGE participants. Approxi- mately 20% of the total token volume is used for the purpose of developing MediBloc. The remaining 20% will go to the MediBloc team and 10% to initial investor and advisors. 20% Founding Team 10% 50% Advisors and Early Investors MED Token Supporters Distribution (TGE participants) 12% Business Development 8% Research Please note, the percentages discussed above are indicative and may vary with the amount raised through the Token Sale. Accurate information related to token sales will be announced through the following channels. - Website: https://medibloc.org - Slack: https://medibloc.slack.com - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/medibloc 19 of 30

- Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/_MediBloc/ 20 of 30

5. Use Cases 5.1 Personal Health Report Patients will be able to combine previously scattered medical records and healthcare data collected through wearable devices. Patients can have complete record and control of the medical history. Patients will be able to use the informa- tion during clinical care and use it for personalized healthcare services, including customized medical AI application. This is an example of recurring topic in the eld of medicine - on the requirements and standards for ideal personal health record (PHR) [27]. Patients can now accurately understand individual health conditions more easily and keep record of when and what medical procedures took place in the hospital. In addition, the exact name and ingredients of medication prescribed and any side e ects can be recorded. Patients can also compare previous health conditions to the present, allowing for enhanced care of individual health. . 5.2 Automatic Insurance Claim Based on the medical data collected through MediBloc, insurance claims and evaluations can be automated with Smart Contacts . Patients will no longer need to call/ visit medical insurance companies to ask if certain diseases, treatments, checkups will be covered. Also eliminated need to submit a claim to the insurance company post treat- ment. Through Smart Contacts used after the treatment, medical data delivered through MediBloc will automatically be billed to the patient s insurance plan. 21 of 30

5.3 P2P Healthcare Data Market MediBloc o ers patients to exchange healthcare data with medical researchers, institutions, companies, etc. through a P2P healthcare information market. Until now, large medical institutions and companies have privatized the monetary bene ts of monopolizing and distributing healthcare information, but MediBloc provides services that can be returned to the patients. The healthcare data market is valued to be over $10 Billion annually in the United States alone. And with the growing demand for the data, it is predicted that the market will continue to grow. However, there is a limit on healthcare data supply and there is no guarantee in quality information. Through the MediBloc ecosystem, we hope to improve the quality of data and authority centered around the individual patient that will eventually make healthcare data more approachable. Through this we can also return the rights and monetized bene ts by big institutions back to the con- sumers. Through MediBloc, patients will now be aware of the value of healthcare data which will motivate them to actively par- ticipate in MediBloc. Medical researchers will be able to more easily access accurate and wholesome medical informa- tion, which could lead to acceleration in the development of medical care and create a virtuous cycle structure that will return bene ts to the patients. 5.4 Arti cial Intelligence The innovation of Arti cial Intelligence (AI) is applied in various industries, and the healthcare eld is no exception. The intersection of medicine and AI is creating changes across the medical spectrum, from highly complex domains, like medical examination and medicine development, to more simple health management. Advancement in AI depends on the quality and quantity of the data, and developers will be given the opportunity to access more quality data through MediBloc. Through this exchange, we can predict AI will be a promising service. 22 of 30

Patients can get even more personalized care through communication with chatbots, provided on MediBloc. There are currently a lot of personalized medical services on personal devices like the smartphone, but it is di cult to access that information from the users. MediBloc can help solve this issue. Here, we could provide various services- recommend practitioners to patients, prescribe diagnosis, recommend treatments, and predict prognosis, etc. When these services are combined with chatbot services, it will advance personalized healthcare services. 5.5 Clinical Trial MediBloc can be used as a platform for clinical research in medical re- search institutes and pharmaceutical companies. It can be used in the process of screening the patients and be an asset to research as a whole. Smart Contract allows both researchers and practitioners to have access to research data anywhere at the same time. MediBloc can open more opportunities for objective research. In the case of Retro- spective Study, researchers can nd the subjects that meets his or her desired condition and obtain data needed to conduct research. 5.6 Telemedicine Patients have a variety of needs for medical services. However, there are currently physical and temporal barriers that prevent patients from receiving the right medical service. Through MediBloc services, patients will be able to connect with their desired practitioner and receive medical service 24/7 anywhere around the world, making it easy for live, real- time healthcare services. 5.7 Social Networking Service, SNS MediBloc will create communities speci cally for patients, especially those with rare diseases. Patients who must ght the same diseases can bene t from sharing information and establishing a relationships. In addition, Medical providers and researchers who are interested in the disease can naturally engage with the community, enriching the experience of righting diseases. 23 of 30

6. Roadmap OCT.2017 MediBloc whitepaper release Release of the whitepaper that goes into detail on how and when MediBloc plans to MediBloc POC achieve its objectives. Release of the first proof of concept: De-centralized application with NOV.2017 simple data I/O for healthcare information on top of blockchain. Crowdfunding MAY.2018 Crowdfunding to raise funds for further development. Timeline TBA. MediBloc SDK SDK for application development and smart contracts for handling MediBloc transactions before release of the Platform. JUL.2018 MediBloc Alpha + HL7 OCT.2018 FHIR, DICOM support MediBloc Platform Beta & Release of the platform alpha with basic functionalities. Support for HL7 DEC.2018 Data Network FHIR & DICOM. Release of a more advanced Platform. MediBloc Platform Full Along with release of the MediBloc 2019~ version Core corresponding to Data Network. Support for other standards Release of the complete version of MediBloc Platform. Support for Other Standards: Genetic data support + Support for 3rd party data repository (HIPAA Compliant Storage) added. The future roadmap for MediBloc can be divided into the roadmap for the platform and associated applications. 6.1 Platform Roadmap Speci c timeline of the MediBloc platform development can be seen below. MediBloc presents the future blueprint for MediBloc by presenting a White Paper October 2017 and releasing the Proof of Concept (PoC). In Nov 2017, MED will be issued through ICO (Initial Coin O ering), which will be followed by devel- opment of the platform and basic application. In May 2018, we plan to release APIs and SDKs for applications that will run in conjunction with the MediBloc platform. We plan on releasing the Alpha version in July and the Beta version in October. The Alpha version will primarily support the Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) of Health Level Seven® (HL7) [28]. In addition, we will support Digi- tal Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) [30], a standard for exchanging medical images, which will en- able both clinical record and image exchange within the platform. In the Beta version, we plan to make IPFS-based 24 of 30

MediBloc Core (Data network) open to allow users to easily backup data. We plan on completing the test phase and releasing the full version of MediBloc in December 2019. In 2019 we plan to launch support standards separate from HL7 FHIR and we plan to release SDKs and APIs accordingly. In February, the MediBloc Core will be updated with the software and platform that will t the HIPAA-compliant reposi- tory. Once su cient storage has been obtained through this process, support for genomic data will start in March. Any future platform development plans will be posted and updated on the website. ’17 Oct White Paper Ver 1.0 Release ’17 Oct Proof of Concept (PoC) Application Release ’17 Nov Initial Coin O ering (ICO) ’18 May MediBloc Platform API & SDK Release MediBloc Platform Alpha Release ’18 Jul - HL7 FHIR, DICOM Support MediBloc Platform Beta Release ’18 Oct - MediBloc Core (Data Network) Support ’18 Dec MediBloc Platform Open ’19 Jan Begin supporting standards other than HL7 FHIR ’19 Feb 3rd Party Data Network (HIPAA Compliant repository) Support ’19 Mar Genetic Data Support 25 of 30

6.2 Basic Application Roadmap Since the MediBloc ecosystem is on an open platform, anyone can freely develop applications and connect it with the MediBloc platform. We are planning on providing a bounty that will encourage third party participation to enrich the MediBloc ecosystem. In addition, we will develop basic MediBloc applications that will demonstrate the e ectiveness and value of the platform. The roadmap for the basic app are listed in the following. MediBloc App MediBloc EHR MediBloc Researcher App 17 Dec App Plan & Design Research App Plan & Design 18 Jan EHR Plan & Design 18 Mar Start App Development 18 Apr Start EHR Development 18 May Start Researcher App Dev 18 Jul App Alpha Researcher App Alpha 18 Aug EHR Alpha 18 Sep App Beta Start Test Run Researcher App Beta 18 Oct EHR Beta 18 Nov 18 Dec App Release Researcher App Release 19 Jan EHR Release MediBloc plans to develop three applications which include: 1) personal healthcare information management applica- tion for patients 2) EHR for medical practitioners and institutions and 3) Data retrieval programs for researchers. All ap- plications are scheduled to start being designed and planned at the end of 2017 or beginning of 2018. We aim to release these applications at the end of 2018/ early 2019. Unlike other programs, EHR will add tests that is geared towards prac- titioners in hospitals. 26 of 30

7. Others (Legal considerations, etc.) - TBD LEGAL DISCLAIMER This whitepaper is for information purposes only and may be subject to change. We cannot guarantee the accuracy of the statements made or conclusions reached in this whitepaper and we expressly disclaim all representations and war- ranties (whether express or implied by statute or otherwise) whatsoever, including but not limited to: - any representations or warranties relating to merchantability, tness for a particular purpose, suitability, wage, title or non-infringement; - that the contents of this document are accurate and free from any errors; and - that such contents do not infringe any third party rights. We shall have no liability for damages of any kind arising out of the use, reference to or reliance on the contents of this whitepaper, even if advised of the possibility of damages arising. This whitepaper may contain references to third party data and industry publications. As far as we are aware, the infor- mation reproduced in this whitepaper is accurate and that the estimates and assumptions contained herein are rea- sonable. However, we o er no assurances as to the accuracy or completeness of this data. Although information and data reproduced in this whitepaper are believed to have been obtained from reliable sources, we have not indepen- dently veri ed any of the information or data from third party sources referred to in this whitepaper or ascertained the underlying assumptions relied upon by such sources. As of the date of publication of this whitepaper, MED tokens have no known or intended future use (other than on the Medibloc Platform, as more speci cally de ned in this White Paper). No promises of future performance or value are or will be made with respect to MED Tokens, including no promise of inherent value, no promise of continuing payments, and no guarantee that MED Tokens will hold any particular value. Unless prospective participants fully understand and accept the nature of the Medibloc Platform and the potential risks associated with the acquisition, storing and transfer of MED Tokens, they should not participate in the MED Token Sale. MED Tokens are not being structured or sold as securities or investments. MED Tokens hold no rights and confer no in- terests in the equity of the company. MED Tokens are sold with an intended future functionality and utility on the Medi- bloc Platform and all proceeds received during the Token Sale may be spent freely by Medibloc on the development of its business and the underlying technological infrastructure. This whitepaper does not constitute a prospectus or disclosure document and is not an o er to sell, nor the solicitation of any o er to buy any investment or nancial instrument in any jurisdiction. MED Tokens should not be acquired for speculative or investment purposes with the expectation of making an investment return. 27 of 30

No regulatory authority has examined or approved any of the information set out in this whitepaper. No such action has or will be taken under the laws, regulatory requirements or rules of any jurisdiction. The publication, distribution or dissemination of this whitepaper does not imply that applicable laws or regulatory requirements have been complied with. Participation in the Token Sale carries substantial risk and may involve special risks that could lead to a loss of all or a substantial portion of your contribution. Further information about the risks of participating in the Token Sale are set out in the Token Sale T&Cs. Please ensure that you have read, understood and are prepared to ac- cept the risks of participating in the Token Sale before sending a contribution to us. The Token Sale and/or MED Tokens could be impacted by regulatory action, including potential restrictions on the ownership, use, or possession of such tokens. Regulators or other competent authorities may demand that we revise the mechanics of the Token Sale and/or the functionality of MED Tokens in order to comply with regulatory require- ments or other governmental or business obligations. Nevertheless, we believe we are taking commercially reasonable steps to ensure that the Token Sale mechanics and issue of MED Tokens do not violate applicable laws and regulations. CAUTION REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS This whitepaper contains forward-looking statements or information (collectively forward-looking statements ) that relate to our current expectations of future events. In some cases, these forward-looking statements can be identi ed by words or phrases such as may , will , expect , anticipate , aim , estimate , intend , plan , seek , believe , po- tential , continue , is/are likely to or the negative of these terms, or other similar expressions intended to identify for- ward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements on current projections about future events and nancial trends that we believes may a ect our nancial condition, results of operations, business strategy, nan- cial needs, or the results of the Token Sale. In addition to statements relating to the matters set out here, this whitepaper contains forward-looking statements re- lated to the Medibloc s operating model. The model speaks to our objectives only, and is not a forecast, projection or prediction of future results of operations. Forward-looking statements are based on certain assumptions and analysis made by Medibloc in light of its experience, current conditions and expected future developments and other factors it believes are appropriate, and are subject to risks and uncertainties. Although the forward-looking statements contained in this whitepaper are based upon what we believe are reasonable assumptions, there are risks, uncertainties, assumptions, and other factors which could cause Medibloc s actual results, performances, achievements and/or experiences to di er materially from the expectations expressed, implied, or perceived in forward-looking statements. Given such risks, prospective participants in the Token Sale should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. 28 of 30

References 1. Blue Button Connector | Use Your Health Records [Internet]. [cited 13 Aug 2017]. Available: http://bluebuttoncon- nector.healthit.gov/ 2. iOS - Health. In: Apple [Internet]. [cited 13 Aug 2017]. Available: http://www.apple.com/ios/health/ 3. Samsung Health | Start a Health Challenge [Internet]. [cited 13 Aug 2017]. Available: https://health.apps.samsung.- com 4. Krebs P, Duncan DT. Health App Use Among US Mobile Phone Owners: A National Survey. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2015;3: e101. 5. O ce For Civil. Summary of the HIPAA Security Rule. In: HHS.gov [Internet]. US Department of Health and Human Services; 26 Jul 2013 [cited 13 Aug 2017]. Available: https://www.hhs.gov/hipaa/for-professionals/security/laws- regulations/index.html 6. National Electronic Health Records Survey: 2015 State and National Electronic Health Record Adoption Summary Tables. In: https://www.cdc.gov [Internet]. [cited 7 Sep 2017]. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ahcd/ nehrs/2015_nehrs_web_table.pdf 7. Munro D. Data Breaches In Healthcare Totaled Over 112 Million Records In 2015. In: Forbes [Internet]. Forbes; 1 Jan 2016 [cited 7 Sep 2017]. Available: https://www.forbes.com/sites/danmunro/2015/12/31/data-breaches-in-health- care-total-over-112-million-records-in-2015/ 8. Dietsche E. Healthcare breaches cost $6.2B annually [Internet]. [cited 7 Sep 2017]. Available: http://www.becker- shospitalreview.com/healthcare-information-technology/healthcare-breaches-cost-6-2b-annually.html 9. Wolters Kluwer Health [Internet]. [cited 7 Sep 2017]. Available: http://journals.lww.com/lww-medicalcare/Citation/ 2014/03000/Does_Health_Information_Exchange_Reduce_Redundant.7.aspx 10. Llp B. The Financial Cost of Healthcare Fraud 2014. In: PR Newswire [Internet]. [cited 7 Sep 2017]. Available: http:// www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/the- nancial-cost-of-healthcare-fraud-2014-252162971.html 11. Who s Buying Medical Your Data. In: Bloomberg.com [Internet]. [cited 7 Sep 2017]. Available: https:// www.bloomberg.com/graphics/infographics/whos-buying-your-medical-records.html 12. News B. Google DeepMind NHS app test broke UK privacy law - BBC News. In: BBC News [Internet]. BBC News; 3 Jul 2017 [cited 7 Sep 2017]. Available: http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-40483202 13. Re-Identifying Anonymous Medical Records. In: Bloomberg.com [Internet]. [cited 7 Sep 2017]. Available: https:// www.bloomberg.com/graphics/infographics/reidentifying-anonymous-medical-records.html 14. Sweeney L. Only You, Your Doctor, and Many Others May Know. Technology Science. 2015; Available: https://tech- science.org/a/2015092903.pdf 15. Tang PC, Ash JS, Bates DW, Overhage JM, Sands DZ. Personal health records: de nitions, bene ts, and strategies for overcoming barriers to adoption. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2006;13: 121‒126. 16. Verizon. Data Breach Digest. In: http://www.verizonenterprise.com/ [Internet]. [cited 13 Aug 2017]. Available: http://www.verizonenterprise.com/resources/reports/rp_data-breach-digest-2017-perspective-is-reali- ty_xg_en.pdf 29 of 30

17. Thousands of patient records leaked in New York hospital data breach. In: NBC News [Internet]. 10 May 2017 [cited 13 Aug 2017]. Available: http://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/thousands-patient-records-leaked-hospital- data-breach-n756981 18. HL7 Standards Product Brief - HL7 Implementation Guide for CDA® Release 2: IHE Health Story Consolidation, Re- lease 1.1 - US Realm [Internet]. [cited 13 Aug 2017]. Available: http://www.hl7.org/implement/standards/produc- t_brief.cfm?product_id=258 19. Ethereum Project [Internet]. [cited 22 Aug 2017]. Available: https://www.ethereum.org/ 20. Website [Internet]. [cited 22 Aug 2017]. Available: http://www.qtum.org 21. EOS - Decentralize Everything [Internet]. [cited 22 Aug 2017]. Available: http://www.eos.io 22. Labs P. IPFS is the Distributed Web. In: IPFS [Internet]. [cited 22 Aug 2017]. Available: https://ipfs.io/ 23. Indorse - Ethereum based Decentralized Professional Network. In: Indorse - Decentralised Professional Network [Internet]. [cited 24 Aug 2017]. Available: https://www.indorse.io/ 24. admin. Intel SGX Homepage | Intel® Software. In: Intel [Internet]. 28 Mar 2016 [cited 3 Sep 2017]. Available: https:// software.intel.com/en-us/sgx 25. ERC20 Token Standard - The Ethereum Wiki [Internet]. [cited 8 Sep 2017]. Available: https://theethereum.wiki/w/ index.php/ERC20_Token_Standard 26. Storj - Decentralized Cloud Storage. In: Storj - Decentralized Cloud Storage [Internet]. [cited 8 Sep 2017]. Available: https://storj.io 27. AHIMA e-HIM Personal Health Record Work Group. Practice brief. The role of the personal health record in the EHR. J AHIMA. 2005;76: 64A‒64D. 28. Health Level Seven International - Homepage [Internet]. [cited 1 Sep 2017]. Available: http://www.hl7.org/in- dex.cfm 29. HL7 Standards Product Brief - CDA® Release 2 [Internet]. [cited 1 Sep 2017]. Available: https://www.hl7.org/imple- ment/standards/product_brief.cfm?product_id=7 30. DICOM Homepage [Internet]. [cited 1 Sep 2017]. Available: http://dicom.nema.org/ 30 of 30