Apollo Currency Technical Document

Friday, May 24, 2019
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THE ULTIMATE CURRENCY Apollo. Privacy Mission Tech Docs v 1.0


INTRODUCTION The current document contains the description of implemented solutions, goals and methods of development for the Apollo project in accordance with the presented roadmap. Further development of the Apollo project and technologies are declared. Applied blockchain protocols and supported services are numbered sequentially depending on new implemented functions during project development (in accordance with the declared roadmap). The Apollo blockchain project is aimed at developing innovative technologies and properties. All technologies of the Apollo project are used and will be used to build different services, eventually uniting these services into a single Apollo ecosystem. At the same time, services can be provided using APIs for use by third-party projects and services. CURRENT STATE OF THE APOLLO PROJECT Olympus 1.0 protocol with IP Masking 1.0 function (support for TOR technology) has been launched. These provide support of web-wallets and desktop versions for different platforms. Using TOR and new types of transactions (anonymous) leads the anonymity paths of data packets. This makes it impossible to monitor traffic inside the TOR network. The current version of the block explorer, support of the market platform, voting system, assets, exchange, message forwarding, use of aliases and other functions are available. Combined, these functions favorably distinguished the Apollo system from other solutions, even at the initial stage. 3

DDos Attack а) Botnet Attacker Web Servers b) Botnet Layered Protection Fig. 1. Scheme of DDos attack to server (a) and protection method (b). All source code of the Apollo project is available on public storage. Development of the project is fully automated. The nodes of the Apollo network demonstrate the continuous and stable system operation at 24/7 mode. The Apollo system uses a decentralized blockchain which facilitates stability and the ability to repel attacks such as denial of service and other hacking attempts. 4

THE APOLLO PROJECT DEVELOPMENT PLAN: ROADMAP The branches of the Apollo project development reflect parallel lines of development of different properties. Hermes protocol is speed, separation of various segments of the blockchain and additional functionality. Olympus protocol is anonymity, security, services for parameters and hiding transactions, incl. for external projects. HERMES PROTOCOL V. 1.0 The following modules and functions are being prepared for launch in the near future, which will radically change and improve the functioning of the detachment: ChainID is a function that allows the separation of different types of blockchain networks and its segments, to separate and protect against parasitic traffic, respectively, to make the operations faster and more stable. ApolloUpdater is a module that allows its developers to quickly and efficiently add new features, update the Apollo system, speed up the release of Staker Fig. 2. Block2sec Staker function representation. Staker 2 1 0 Staker 5 Blockchain

new versions, avoid blockchain “hard forks”. At the same time, the ApolloUpdater protects from unauthorized, hacking attempts to update the application. A new type of transaction is introduced that allows its developers to implement the update procedure automatically, securely, with verification of the cryptographic digital signature. Block2sec is a function which allows the creation of blocks within 2 seconds, which is much faster than most existing solutions. This function allows the blockchain to speed up the processing of a high number of transactions as well as speed up the system in general. Additionally the block size will also be increased, cryptographic functions will be refined and additional validations of the incoming packets will be performed. The digital signature during the development, installation and update of applications is fully implemented. OLYMPUS PROTOCOL V. 2.0 IP Masking 2.0 is a transport protocol that allows anonymous encrypted packet delivery. This function prevents the tracking of transaction paths and is one of the elements of complete anonymity of transactions. The development of a proprietary protocol is justified by the recognition and blocking of TOR in some countries, as well as by the inability to configure data exchange parameters in the TOR network. To implement transport between nodes, a VPN channel is created, a tunnel through which all data is transmitted in the form of standard protocol packets used by standard web-browsers. ApolloMixer is a transaction-mixing system for hiding the sender, recipient and transaction amount. At the same time, transactions are encrypted during forwarding and in this form are delivered to the mixer. All transactions in the mixer are divided into 3-7 parts (the number of parts is selected randomly), sent randomly (3 to 10) one-time use wallets, which are destroyed immediately after the operation, finally these parts arrive in the wallet of the recipient. In this case, the absence of the same parameters in transactions makes the 6 restoration of the original data almost impossible. Third parties can

3-10 Rounds of Mixing User End User Fig. 3. General concept of the Apollo transaction mixer. track open transactions, but the crypto mixer mixes transactions with many others, or exchanges funds for funds received from many other users. This is so that the funds received will no longer be associated with the original owners. The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) is used to encrypt transactions inside the Apollo network. It is a public-key algorithm for creating a digital signature, defined not over the ring of integers, but in the group of points of an elliptic curve. The strength of the encryption algorithm is based on the problem of a discrete logarithm in the group of points of an elliptic curve. Unlike the problem of a simple discrete logarithm and the problem of factoring an integer, there is no subexponential algorithm for the discrete logarithm problem in the group of points of an elliptic curve. The choice of key length and elliptic curve points corresponds to the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recommendations. Key exchange uses the Diffie-Hellman protocol on an elliptical curve, a cryptographic protocol that allows two parties that have open/closed key pairs on an elliptical curve to obtain a shared secret key using an unprotected communication channel. This secret key can be used both for the encryption of further exchanges, and for the formation of a new key, which can then be used for subsequent exchanges of information using symmetric encryption algorithms. This is a variation of the Diffie-Hellman protocol using elliptical cryptography. The functions of content evaluation and storage time in services using third-party files are implemented. Storage of external content is carried out in a separate, independant repository. This increases the speed of data processing, data security, and the ability to delete 7 unnecessary content by the owner.

Two Factor Authentication the implementation of a two-factor authentication mechanism for web wallets will allow for increased security in regard to user identification. This additional security protocol would make the theft of a user’s password pointless. Two-factor authentication is an enhanced authentication protocol which utilizes an access control method in which more than one type of proof is required to provide the user with access to data. HERMES PROTOCOL V. 2.0 ApolloSharding allows the blockchain to be split into segments, which positively affects the volume of the database of transactions, download speed, the speed of the blockchain, and the stability of the system. Multilevel sharding allows the system to flexibly adjust the size of the block and the number of transactions in the database, all depending on the region, time and other parameters. Sharding also allows transactions to be divided into parts, this permits each node in the network to process only the components of a block, not the entire block itself. This division allows the system to process transactions faster and facilitates sustainability for the Apollo network. Shard 1 Receipt code Shard 2 Shard 3 Global Root Shard Substate 8 Fig. 4. Scheme of Apollo network sharding.

Adaptive Block Generation is the mechanism for creating blocks only in the presence of transactions. This function affects the speed and volume of the database and allows for guaranteed transactions. Guaranteed transactions are a new type of prioritized transaction performed regardless of the progress of creating new blocks and new transactions. OLYMPUS PROTOCOL V. 3.0 IP Masking 3.0 is an implementation of the zkSnark mechanism that is based on an anonymous transaction library. This function allows the system to hide the sender, recipient and amount sent by encryption, with the ability to verify the transaction without access to the source data (proof with zero disclosure). The goal of zero-disclosure proof is to ensure that the auditor can ascertain that the auditee has knowledge of a secret parameter, called a “proof ” that satisfies certain relationships, without disclosing the certificate to the examiner or to anyone else. The essence of the proof with zero disclosure is a program denoted by C, which takes two parameters: C (x, w). The parameter x is a public value, P2P Networks on Services Blockchain Powered Based on Payment Users by Native Coins Network Clients in Apollo Instant Payment Directly to Users in Coins VPN CDN Payments to Services Based on Resellers the Network 9 Figure 5. IP masking 3.0 scheme.

Trusted Third Prover Verifier Party Private data 1 The Prover receives authenticated private data, e.g. signed bank statement. It could happen on demand or regularly, once per month, for instance. The Verifier makes a custom request on Custom request 2 Prover's personal data. The requests should ask for the necessary minimum. The Prover computes the response on the ZK proof construction 3 Verifiers's question and constructs the proof of correct computation. Response and proof 4 Both response and proof are sent back to the Verifier. The Verifier applies the ZK proof ZK proof 5 verification algorithm to ensure the response is correct. If the algorithm verification gives a positive answer, the Verifier trusts the response as if it has been produced by a Trusted Third Party. Figure 6. Scheme of proof verification. and w is the secret value of the proof. The program returns a Boolean value, that is, either “true” or “false”. The goal is to get such a public value of x that you can verify that the verifier knows the secret value of w, such that C (x, w) == true. Private Ledger is a function which implements the creation of anonymous wallets. Users can carry out anonymous transactions from these wallets using a full range of anonymous services. This offers users a 100% guarantee of anonymity on transactions, users, nodes and services. Distributed Ledger Technologies Internet og Blockchains PUBLIC FEDERATED PRIVATE Blockchains Blockchains Blockchains R3 Company EWF Internal 10 Figure 7. Distributed ledger technology.

HERMES PROTOCOL V. 3.0 FastApollo is an instant transaction protocol that allows the system to conduct a transaction directly between two nodes of the Apollo network. This significantly reduces transaction time, adds guaranteed execution and enhances the ability to build distributed independent systems (for example, a distributed exchange). This protocol allows for instant transactions between participating nodes and is proposed as one of the solutions to the scaling problem. The Apollo network will consist of nodes and bidirectional payment channels which are installed between two nodes of the network. Each of the two nodes in the payment channel blocks a certain amount of funds for the channel in the blockchain. In the future, the bandwidth of the channel will be composed of the volume of funds blocked by the nodes. ApolloDEX is a decentralized exchange and exchange service which allows instant transactions between nodes and instant exchange of various currencies. It can withstand a large number of simultaneous transactions and works on the basis of the FastApollo protocol. Decentralized exchanges differ from centralized exchanges, as they allow users to control their funds, managing their most important functions on the blockchain. ApolloDEX uses the technology of the applied cryptocurrency itself, thereby ensuring the security and transparency of the trade. ApolloDEX solves the main problems faced by cryptocurrency markets, since they do not have a single point of failure. OLYMPUS PROTOCOL V. 4.0 ApolloMobile involves the launch of a mobile application for wallets on various platforms. It is the implementation of security functions, identification, wallet management, cryptocurrency exchange services and other Apollo ecosystem services. 11

This protocol includes the development of a public application programming interface (API) for connecting third-party services and projects to Apollo system. This API allows developers to use ready- made blocks for building the compatible applications. HERMES PROTOCOL V. 4.0 SmartApollo is the implementation of a smart contract mechanism. It is the ability to create complex data processing scenarios. Smart contracts enable the system to perform reliable and confidential transactions without the involvement of external intermediaries. In addition, such transactions are traceable, transparent and irreversible. Smart contracts not only contain information about the obligations of the parties and sanctions for their violation, but they automatically ensure the fulfillment of all terms of the contract. Figure 8. General representation of Apollo smart contract. 12

ApolloPlatform is a decentralized platform for executing an ICO on the Apollo blockchain. This toolkit facilitates generating tokens and raising funds for third-party projects, allowing users to collect funds using innovative blockchain technology and smart contracts. The ApolloPlatform makes it possible to do the following: implement an ICO (primary placement), prepare for the initial placement of pre- ICO, implement crowdfunding, provide other services related to public financing, the initial launching, preparation and placement of coins, and more. The ApolloPlatform module includes an administrative panel for the ICO or event, a client dashboard, a mechanism for connecting third-party payment services, accepting payments in Apollo and the ability to connect KYC and AML services. PROSPECTS FOR THE APOLLO PROJECT DEVELOPMENT All the declared services are launched as separate modules in accordance with the development plan. Besides uses within their own ecosystem, these services allow connections third-party services and projects on a commercial basis. Finalization and implementation of deep refactoring of the system will allow the Apollo engine to be used as a separate private or public blockchain, including large-scale governmental and commercial projects. The development of this ecosystem involves the use of external software and hardware wallets, authorization and identification devices. The Apollo project roadmap includes the development of additional types of consensus, the possibility of flexible change of algorithms, the use of advanced technologies of the industry and the further development of the project. 13

APOLLO MISSION ROADMAP Key Milestones 2017 2018 2019 2020 CREATION OF APOLLO 1Q 3Q 1Q 1Q Fan Store Available OFFICIAL HERMES 2.0 APOLLO LAUNCH ApolloSharding PLATFORM Non Technical Whitepaper ON EXCHANGES Adaptive Block HERMES 4.0 Available Generation 2Q R& D Smart Contracts WEB WALLET WEB WALLET DECENTRALIZED RELEASE EXCHANGE OLYMPUS 4.0 2.0 RELEASED INTEGRATED Apollo Mobile MONETARY Full Sourсe OLYMPUS INTO WALLET (Multiplatfor m & ASSET Code Released SYSTEM PROTOCOL 1.0 with OP 1.0 API) INTEGRATED RELEASE Full-Technical IP Masking 1.0 Whitepaper Release Private Transactions (API Level) 2Q WALLET 1.0 WINDOWS AND OSX 4Q HERMES 3.0 FastApollo Olympus ApolloDEX Protocol Guide HERMES 1.0 OLYMPUS OLYMPUS 3.0 ChainID PROTOCOL Testnet ApolloUpdater WALLETS RELEASED Block2sec iOS & ANDROID Nebula CONFIRMED WALLET BiteBTC ON MULTIPLE RELEASED Coinpulse HitBTC EXCHANGES Voting Feature New Website UI/UX 3Q Used for Coin IDAX Design OLYMPUS 2.0 OLYMPUS 3.0 IP Masking 2.0 Whitepaper IP Masking 3.0 Translated ApolloMixer to Chinese Private Ledger Two Factor Authentication WALLET 3.0 Transport Live Version 14